ASB100 MOD 5 Notes.docx - Global Health 100 u2013 Module 5...

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Global Health 100 – Module 5Lecture Video 1: Social Determinants of HealthHealth DisparitiesoLife expectancy – how long the average person in a country live – shows the huge amount of variation and disparities across regions and countriesJapan, Canada, and Australia have national rates over 80 years oldSome countries in Africa have average rates in the 50’sThis means that where someone is born can lead to a 30 year difference in how long the average person can expect to liveoMaternal MortalitySame thing can be expected for maternal mortality as with life expectancyHigh income countries the average maternal mortality rate (in 2015) was 12 deaths per 100k live birthsLow income countries the average maternal mortality rate (in 2015) was 239 deaths per 100k live birthsoInfant MortalitySame thing can be expected for infant mortality as with maternal mortalityLow income countries have a rate of 1 in every 10 infants dying before their first birthdayoThere are also big differences within regionsWhen looking at high income countries, the United States is an outlier in a lot of health indicatorsoMaternal mortality – the US has a much higher rate than other higher income countries (26.4)Instead of going down, like most do, the rate in the US is going up from 2000 – 2015Social Determinants of Healtho“The social determinants of health (SDH) are the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily lifeoThese forces and systems include economic policies and systems, development agendas, social norms, social policies and political systems” – WHO.intoFlowchart from the WHOOutlines the causal relationships between things like socioeconomic context, influence in social position, and other individual or group characteristics like education, occupation, income, gender, and race or ethnicityNote that each of these has feedback mechanisms, or that they influence each otherThese characteristics then influence circumstances, like where someone lives and access to resources, but also things like social cohesion, mental health, behavior, and biology, all of which influence contact with and the nature of, the health systemThe health system then feeds into these disparities and the loop continuesoThis is part of why the WHO puts health at the center of all of the Sustainable Development Goals, arguing for a “health in all policies” modelBecause improvements in health require improvements in other areasSocial Determinants of Health – each of these has a big impact on individual and population level healthoSocio-Economic StatusIncomeAmerican Public Health Association estimates that income is associated with a difference of 10 years in life expectancy Wealth can refer to a lot of different things, but usually it means access to and possession of either symbolic and/or material resourcesLack of resources is very often associated with poor health conditions

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