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ferrous2 - Puddling Furnace Puddling Low Low Arched Roof...

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Unformatted text preview: Puddling Furnace Puddling Low Low Arched Roof With Two Chambers Two Molten Iron & Molten Combustion Chamber Are Separated Are Bessemer Process Bessemer Sir Henry Bessemer Inventions Stamp That Could Not Be Forged Improved Lead Pencils & Printer’s Type New Way Of Making Bronze Powder Machinery For Crushing Sugar Cane Making Plate Glass Guns For England Bessemer Process (Beginning 1855) Marked Beginning Of Steel Age Bessemer Process (Continued) Very Simple Idea Dismissed At First By All So-Called Experts Observation Molten Iron Reacted On the Surface With Air Process Recall, To Convert Molten “Cast” Iron To Wrought Recall, Iron, The Carbon Must Be Removed Iron, Bessemer Blew Cold Air Through The Molten Iron Though He Produced Wrought Iron However, He Produced Malleable Iron “Steel” What We Call “Mild Steel” Bessemer Process (Continued) Numerous Patents (1855 To 1856) Experimental Setup 770 lb Iron (1/3 Ton) & Required 30 Minutes Compared To 550 lb In Puddling Furnace For 2 hrs Ordinary Air - 21% Oxygen Converter (Pear) Tilted For Charging & Pouring Produced Mild Steel Could Be Bent & Formed Without Heat Process Difficulties Bessemer Licensed Process Licensees Could Reproduce Quality Of Steel Bessemer Process (Continued) Iron Iron Gets Hotter As Cold Air Passes Through It Through Experts Thought It Experts Would Cool Iron Would Like A Volcano Most Spectacular Most Sight In Iron & Steel Industry Industry Clear Flame Finally Clear From Converter From Shown - 25 Ton Bessemer Process (Continued) Experimental Experimental Plant At St. Pancras St. Ore Mined At Blaenavon, Ore Gwent (No Phosphorous) Gwent Bessemer Bessemer Plant At Sheffield (1905) Sheffield Made A Fortune Steam Boilers (1860) Railway Rails (1863) Thomas Process Thomas P.G. Thomas, Police-Court Clerk & Scientist Removed Phosphorous Problem Lined Converter With Dolomite Chemically Basic United With Phosphorous Went Away With Slag Sold As Agricultural Fertilizer Thomas Thomas Process Spread Quickly To Regions With Phosphorous Iron Ores (Most Abundant) With Basic Oxygen Process Basic Advancement Advancement Of Bessemer & Thomas Process Process Air Is Replaced With High Pressure Stream Pure Oxygen Oxygen Lance (Water-Cooled Tip) Supersonic Speed 275 tons Per hour Siemens Process Siemens C.W. Siemens, Germany Improving Furnaces For Glass Making By 1857, Saved 75% Of fuel Used to Make Glass Waste Gases Used To Heat Air Needed To Burn Fuel First Applied To Steel Making In France Emil & Pierre Martin (1863) Siemens Set Up Iron Works In Birmingham (1866) Company At Swansea Producing 75 tons A week Siemens Process Phosphorous & Non-Phosphorous Molten Iron Required Fuel Siemens Process (Continued) Phosphorous & Non-Phosphorous Molten Iron Cost Bessemer Was Cheaper (No Fuel) But Required Bessemer Molten Iron Molten Located Near Blast Furnace Siemens Required Fuel Speed Bessemer - 30 min Siemens - 10 hours Could Melt Scrap Iron Open-Hearth Process Open-Hearth Derived From Siemen’s Process Components Rectangular Brick Hearth (20’x30’x8’) Regenerative Preheating Operates At 3000oF Steel Melts At 2500oF Produces 100 tons Per hour Open-Hearth Furnace Process Of Producing Steel Furnace Can Be Charged With Pig Iron (Molten Or Cold) Scrap Steel Iron Ore Carbon Content Is Lowered By Oxidation Impurities Combine With Limestone As Slag Silicon, Phosphorous, Manganese, & Sulfur Open-Hearth Furnace Open-Hearth Electric Furnaces Electric Electric Arc Or Electric Induction Primary Use Is Alloy & Specialty Steels Charge Is Usually Scrap Limestone & Iron Ore Are Added In Small Amounts No Contamination From Fuel Alloying Elements Are Added In Charge Or Later Electric Arc Refractory Lined Vessel Of Drum Shape Heat Is Generated By Electric Arc Electric Induction Electric Current Induces Secondary Current In Vessel Electric-Arc Furnace Electric-Arc Classifications Of Steels Classifications Carbon Steels Alloy Steels High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Stainless Steels Tool Steels Carbon Steels Carbon 90% Of All Steels Composition Varying Amounts Of Carbon Less Than 1.65% Maganese Less Than 0.60% Silicon Less Than 0.60% Copper Uses Auto Bodies, Machines, Structural Steel Auto For Buildings, Ship Hulls, Etc. For Alloy Steels Alloy Composition Certain Percentages Of Certain Vanadium, Molybdenum, Or Other Elements Other Larger Amounts Of Maganese, Larger Silicon, & Copper Than Carbon Steels Steels Uses Auto Gears & Axles, Knives High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels High-Strength Called HSLA Combination Between Carbon Steels & Combination Alloy Steels Alloy Cost Less Than Alloy Steels Stronger Than Carbon Steels Stainless Steels Stainless Composition Chromium Nickel Other Alloying Elements Properties Corrosion Resistance Hard & Strong Tool Steels Tool Composition Tungsten Molybdenum Cobalt Other Alloying Elements Properties Hardness ...
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