flight1 - AERONAUTICS AERONAUTICS Classifications...

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Unformatted text preview: AERONAUTICS AERONAUTICS Classifications Classifications Lighter-Than-Air Free Balloons Airships Specialized Kite-Balloons Kites Parachutes ??? Heavier-Than-Air Ornithopters Helicopters Gliders Aeroplanes Ballistic Rockets Outline Outline Early Origins First Balloon Ascents Kite Balloons, Kites & Parachutes Epoch Of The Airship Ornithopters Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders Powered Aeroplane Jet Power Rockets Helicopters Early Origins Early Daedalus & His Son, Icarus Escaped Imprisonment From Crete With Wings Made From Feathers & Wax. Flew Too Close To Sun. Archytas Of Tarentum (4th Century BC) Made Wooden Pigeon Which Flew Roger Bacon & Albert The Great (1200s) Albert Of Saxony (1300s) Leonardo da Vinci (1400s) Parachutes, Helicopters, Ornithopters (Bird Flight) Robert Hooke (Late 1600s) Experiments With Flying Machines - Records Lost First Balloon Ascents First Bartholomeu Lourenco de Gusmao (1709) Hot-Air Model - No Passengers Demonstrated Before King Of Portugal Joseph & Etienne Montgolfiere Man-Carrying Hot-Air Model (1782) J.F. Pilatre de Rozier & Marquis d’Arlandes First Free-Flight By Man (1783) “Montgolfiere” Balloon 7.5 Miles, 26 Minutes 3000 ft 78000 ft3 First Balloon Ascents First J.A.C. Charles (1746-1823) Hydrogen Would Be More Efficient Than Hot Air Isolated By Henry Cavendish (1766) “Charliere” Made First Flight 10 Days After de Charliere” Rozier & d’Arlandes Rozier 27 Miles, 2 Hours 9000 ft First Balloon Ascents First Montgolfiere Charliere Military Kite Balloons Kite Development Of Free Balloon Used For Observation - WW I First Practical Kite Balloon - German “Drachen” Elongated Gas-Filled Balloon (1896) Led To Zeppelin Development Kites Kites Chinese (1000 BC) Man-Lifting Purposes ? Europe Europe - Romans (1400s) (1400s) Single Monoplane Single Lifting Surfaces Lifting Box-Kite (1893) Hargrave More Efficient Tandem Biplane Lifting Tandem Surfaces Surfaces Man-Lifting ! Parachutes Parachutes Known To Ancient Chinese Leonardo da Vinci (1400s-1500s) Early Experimenters Blanchard (1777) - dropped Animals Montgolfiere (1779) A.J. Garnerin (1797) - First Human Jump A. Berry (1912) - First Aeroplane Jump E.M. Maitland (1913) - First Airship Jump 1920s - First Free-Fall Packed Parachutes Epoch Of The Airship Balloons - Problems Navigation - Paddles, Oars, Propellers Elongated Workable Dirigible Balloon Helped Navigation Light & Powerful Means Of Propulsion Charles (1784) Elongated A Hydrogen Balloon Air-Filled Ballonet Contained Within Main Envelope T. Monck Mason (1843) - 6 mph Le Berrier (1844) - Steam Powered Epoch Of The Airship Epoch H. Giffard (1852) - Shown First Man-Carrying Airship 17 Miles At 5 mph 3 hp Steam Engine 3 Bladed Propeller First Pratical Model Renard & Krebs 1884 9 hp Electric Motor 5 Miles At 14 mph Epoch Of The Airship Epoch Rigid Airship - Hydrogen D. Schwarz (1897) - Unsuccessful Count F. von Zeppelin (1900) Epoch Of The Airship Royal Naval Air Service “Coastal” Class WW I (1914-1918) Non-Rigid Hydrogen Two 112 kW Engines British Airship R101 1929 Passenger Service Water Ballast Ornithopters Ornithopters Flapping-Wing Flying-Machines Leonardo da Vinci - Shown Marey (1892) - Flight Of Pigeons Recorded Current Aerodynamic & Physics Theory Possible ????? Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders Fixed Hooke (1655) - Thought About Fixed-Wing Flight Sir George Caylay “Father Of Aerial Navigation” Aerodynamic Lift & Drag Forces (1799) Experimental Gliders (1804) Full Size Man Carrying Glider (1852/53) No Complete Records Survive Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders Otto Otto Lilienthal Applied Principles Of Applied Caylay Caylay Contol & Stability Flew Gliders Over 1000 Fights Died In Crash (1896) Worked On Power P.S. Pilcher Followed Lilienthal Died In Crash (1899) Both Both Would Have Beaten Wright Bros. Beaten Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders Octave Chanute Gliding Experiments Used Hargrave’s Box Kites To Develop Gliders Encouraged Wright Bros. Passed On Trussed Biplane Design Passes Information Between America & Europe Voisin Bros. Two Box Kite Gliders With Pontoons (1905) Towed By Boat Wright Bros. Experimented Extensively With Gliders 3 Versions - 1900, 1901, 1902 Powered Aeroplane Powered Aerodynamic Theory Caylay (1799) Trial & Error Lanchester (1907 & 1908) From Hydrodynamic Theory (Bernoulli, Euler, Etc.) Powered Model Aeroplanes First - de la Croix (1857) Steam Powered - S. P. Langley (1896) 0.75 Miles With 16’ Wing Span Powered Aeroplane Powered W.S. Hensen - Patent (1842) Large Transport Aeroplane - Steam Engine Never Flew 150’ Wing Span “Aerial Transit Company” Wright Bros. Wright Orville (Bicycle Manufacturer) & Wilbur First Powered, Sustained, & Controlled Flight “Flyer” - Tailless Pusher Biplane (Dec 17, 1903) 12 secs, 40 yds Long, 3ft High, 30 mph 12 hp Petrol Engine Kitty Hawk, NC Wright Bros. Wright Am. Press Ignored Their Success For Several Years Third “Flyer” - 24 Miles In 38 min Gov’t Contract - One Biplane (1908) 1908 Wright Biplane (Kitty Hawk Museum) Control By Front Elevators, Wing Warping, Double Rudder Santos-Dumont 14 bis Santos-Dumont Alberto Santos-Dumont Independently In Europe Powered, Sustained, Controlled Tail First Pusher Biplane - Hargrave Style Octobe 23, 1906 - 65 yards 50 hp Antoinette Petrol Engine Wright Wright Bros. Were Quickly Out-Paced ...
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