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Unformatted text preview: INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES ENGINES Outline Outline Gas Engines Oil Engines Diesel Engine Petrol Engine Gas Engines Gas Huygens Papin Etienne Lenoir Alphonse Beau de Rochas N. A. Otto Crossley Brothers Huygens & Papin Huygens Huygens (1629-1695) Pre-Steam Small Quantity Of Gunpowder In Cylinder Explosion Raises Cylinder Power On Downstroke Denis Papin (1647-1714) Same Concept Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) Etienne Resembled Resembled Horizontal Double-Acting Steam Engine Engine Cylinder, Piston, Cylinder, Connecting Rod, Flywheel Connecting Gas Gas & Air Replaced Steam Steam High Tension Spark Battery & Induction Coil Return Stroke Expelled Exhaust Slide Valves Water Cooled 4-Stroke Cycle 4-Stroke Lenoir 100 ft3 Of Gas Consumed Per hp-hour No Initial Compression Of Mixture Alphonse Beau de Rochas (1815-1891) Patent (1862) Protected Invention Of 4-Stroke Engine 1. Explosive Mixture In 2. Mixture Compressed 3. Burning Mixture Drives Piston 4. Burnt Gases Are Exhausted N. A. Otto (1832-1891) N. German Engineer Vertical Atmosphereic Gas Engine (1867) Horizontal Gas Engine (1878) Based On Beau de Rochas Cycle Otto (Continued) Otto Otto Never New Of Earlier Patent Produced 35,000 Engines Within Produced Several Years Several Very Few Used Electric Ignition Most Used A Flame Drawn Into Cylinder By 1878 - 28 ft3 per hp-hour Early Flame Ignition Early Dual Flames External Internal Internal Internal Is Extinguished During Ignition During Incorporated Slide Valves Other Developers Other Dugald Clerk (1879) 2-Stroke Engine Single-Acting Lenoir Engine Griffin 6-Stroke Engine Crossley Brothers Crossley Built Many 4-Stroke Engines Under Otto Patent Oil Engines Oil Hock & Brayton Dent & Priestman Hornsby Hock & Brayton Hock Gas Producing Plants Limited Development J. Hock (1873) - Paraffin (Kerosene) Pressurized Air Broke Up Jet Of Oil Into Mist Incomplete Combustion - Unsatisfactory Brayton (1873) Two Cylinders Compression Of Mixture Actual Working Air Forced Trough Oil Soaked Absorbent Material Double-Acting, 2-Stroke Cycle 1890 - Single-Acting On Otto Cycle Dent & Priestman Dent Used Vapor Of Heavy Oil Otto Cycle - Horizontal & Vertical 100 hp Portable Model Hornsby Oil Engine Hornsby Vaporizer Oil Lamp To Heat Mixture Prior To Starting (10 min) Diesel Engine Diesel Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) Patent (1892) Based On Otto Cycle Basic Principle Compress Air By A Rising Piston Higher Compression Than Other IC Engines Injector Pump To Add Small Quantity Of Oil Into Combustion Chamber Ignites Spontaneously Upon Contact With Air Worked With All Types Of Petroleum Oil Diesel Engine (Continued) Diesel 11% 11% Greater Efficiency Than Any Other Prime Mover Prime Disadvantages Heavier & More Solid Engine Roughness At Low Speeds Cold Starting Petrol Engines Petrol Gottlieb Daimler Karl Benz Electric Ignition Float-Feed Carburettor Hot Tube Ignition Opposed Pistons Balancing Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Father Of Modern IC Engine Premise Small & Light High-Speed Motor Power By High Speed Rotation Patent (1884) High-Speed Gas Engine Hot Tube Ignition Patent (1885) Single Cylinder, Enclosed Crank & Flywheel Gottlieb Daimler (Continued) Patent (1885) Surface Carburettor Patent (1889) V-Type Twin Cylinder 150 Inclined Connecting Rod On Common Crank Used On Motor Cars On Both Continents Sold In Large Quatities “First Modern Day IC Engine” V-Type V-Type Twin Cylinder V-Type Twin-Cylinder (Operation) V-Type First Down Stroke Carburetted Air At Atmospheric Pressure Through Carburetted Mushroom Valve Mushroom Light Spring Closes Valve First Return Stroke Mixture Is Compressed (3:1) At TDC, Charge Is Fired By Hot Tube Ignition At Gases Increase In Pressure (20:1) Gases V-Type Twin-Cylinder (Operation) V-Type Second Down Stroke Driven By Exploding Mixture Mechanical Valve Opens To Release Exhaust To Mechanical Silencer - Remains Open During Return Silencer Second Return Stroke Completely Drives Out Exhaust Exhaust Valve Closes Cycle Repeats V-Type Twin-Cylinder (Properties) V-Type 2 to 1 Exhaust Valve Gearing No Exhaust On First Return Stroke Governor Controlled Keeps Exhaust Valve Closed If Speed Exceeds Keeps Maximum Maximum Flywheel During Non Power Stroke Pistons Don’t Oppose Each Other Cylinder & Valve Casting Is Water Jacketed Radiator Karl Benz Karl “Father Of First Motor Car” 3.5 hp Single Cylinder Petrol Engine (1893) Otto Cycle Slow Speed Primtive Surface Carburettor & Mixer Electric Ignition - High Tension System Same Principle Used By Many Vehicles Patent (1885) First Motor Vehicle By Benz Karl Benz Karl Benz (1885) - Electric Ignition Benz Electri Ignition - Operation Electri 4 Volt Accumulator In Series With Primary Volt Winding Of Induction Coil Winding Trembler Switch When Core Energizes, Interrupts Circuit Switch Springs Back Till Core Energizes Cycle Repeats Rapidly Making a Buzz High High Tension Winding Delivers A Series Of Sparks Sparks Rotary Switch Makes Sure Ignition Takes Rotary Place At Correct Time Place Float Feed Carburettor Float Wilhelm Maybach (1893) Daimler Engines Petrol Fed By Gravity Pressure Needle Jet Air Suction Mixes Petrol Float Float Level Level Controls Petrol de Dion & Bouton de 1895 Light, High Speed Single Cylinder, Air Cooled Otto Cycle 1500 rpm Surface Carburettor New Ignition System Precursor For Many Engines Precursor To Follow de Dion (1895) - Electric Ignition de Electric Ignition - Operation Primary Battery Plain Induction Coil Cam & V-Shaped Notch ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course EGN 2031 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of South Florida - Tampa.

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