intro - OVERVIEW OVERVIEW The Seven The Technological Ages...

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Unformatted text preview: OVERVIEW OVERVIEW The Seven The Technological Ages of Technological Man Man Technological Ages of Man Technological Man, The Hunter, Masters Fire The Farmer, The Smith, The Wheel The First Machine Age Intimations of Automation The Expansion of Steam The Freedom of Internal Combustion Electron Controlled THE FIRST AGE THE Man, The Hunter, Masters Fire Man, Hunter, Masters Fire Man, Material Ages Early Tools Fire Stone Age Tools Material Ages Material Eolithic Dawn Stone Age < 10,000,000 ybp origins of tool making Lower Palaeolithic Old Stone Age < 5,000,000 ybp Middle Palaeolithic Old Stone Age < 500,000 ybp Upper Palaeolithic Old Stone Age < 35,000 ybp Mesolithic New Stone Age < 6,000 BC Aeneolithic Bronze Age < 3,000 BC Iron Age < 1,500 BC origins of blade technology Middle Stone Age < 12,000 BC Neolithic Itinerant hunter tribes hand axes widespread agrarian revolution beginnings of towns copper articles in Egypt Tin in Mesopotamia Early Tools Early Pre - Homo erectus / Sapiens Ramepithecus 14,000,000 ybp - No Tools Related to great apes Australopithecenes 2,500,000 ybp - Walked upright Taung Man, Oldurai Gorge, Tanzania Dr. Louis Leakey (1925) Basalt Side-Chopper Basalt Fire Fire Making Fire Homo-erectus (600,000 BC) Charcoal layers in caves, China Charcoal Man’s greatest accomplishment ? Tasmanian & Andamanese tribes Using Fire Meteors, volcanoes, spontaneous Meteors, combustion, etc. combustion, Early tribal societies tended a fire Fire (continued) Fire Uses of Fire Warmth, cooking, protection, curing Focus of tribal life Hollowing out logs Firing pots, bricks, tiles Extraction of copper & iron Working of tools, weapons, ornaments Bases of metallurgical eras Making of glass Fire (continued) Fire Making Fire Impacting flint and iron or iron pyrites Occurred by chance ? Needs addition of fuel Generation of heat from friction Hard stick (fire drill) Softwood block (hearth) Intellectual - addition of weight, string, bow Fire Drills Fire First elementary machines ? Multi-components Translation to rotation Mechanical advantage with flywheel Bow later turned lathes in Iron age Bow later used as a weapon in late Bow Stone age (Tunisia) Stone First engineers ? Fire Drills (continued) Fire Stone Age Tools Stone Properties Density, hardness, durability Self-sharpening in some instances Difficult to manufacture First First Industry ? Tools-to-make-tools (5,000,000 ybp) Hammer stones & anvil stones (Tanzania) Stone Age Tools (continued) Stone Chronology Pebble tools (2,600,000 ybp) Bi-faced hand axes (500,000 ybp) Pebbles and quarried natural rock Blade tools (< 35,000 BC) Flakes of flint, chert, or obsidian Variants are gravers, shaves, planes, drills Grinding & polishing (< 12,000 BC) Region dependent (basalt & epidiorite) Peaked before Bronze age Stone Age Tools (continued) Stone Production Processes Basic core and flake tools Pressure flaking Percussion flaking Highly skilled trade (industry ?) Grinding and polishing Wetted sandstone or similar Sand was used as abrasive powder Final burnishing with a skin/hide THE SECOND AGE THE The Farmer, The Smith, The The Wheel The Farmer, Smith, Wheel Farmer, Social influences of copper and iron The Common ground The wheel Glass Gearing Early machines in Egypt Greece & Rome The Dark ages Introduction Introduction Nomadic hunter to agricultural villager End of last ice age brought life (10,000 End BC) BC) Wild wheat and goat grass Wild Wheat, barley, & millet was harvested Villages grew to cities reed & mud, unbaked clay, baked brick Animals were domesticated Copper, tin, & bronze (Mesopotamia) Social Influences of Copper & Iron Copper Cause Copper and Bronze Copper were expensive were Skill Craftsman Metals were used for Metals ornaments ornaments Society was a hierarchy Ironmaking & forging Ironmaking was complex was Iron was inexpensive Effect Metal tools expensive Farmers used wood, Farmers stone, & bone tools stone, Elitist Society Small agricultural Small surpluses surpluses Democratic metal IRON AGE The Common Ground The Metallurgy became the common ground Society needed food Farming community needed tools Metal workers became skilled craftsmen Mining of Ores (Copper, Tin, Iron) Construction of Furnaces & Crucibles Bellows (3,000 BC) from skins/hides Transportation (wheel !) industry grew Plough Plough Not possible in Copper age Improvement of hoe for tilling Caschrom - lightweight man-plough Animal-drawn plough (3,000 BC) Egyptian Hand Digging Instrument (1500 BC) Instrument Tools From Early Metallurgy Tools Plough Copper Nails & Rivets (Egypt, 2500 BC) Iron nails used in ships Woodscrews (Roman, 400 AD) Shears (Egypt, 4500 BC) The Wheel The Used for transporting heavy loads Evolved from potters wheel First was stone ? Solid wood Solid Spoked Axle - Egyptian war chariot Transporting Heavy Loads Transporting Stretcher Stretcher Sledge Sledge Ur (3,500 BC) Ur Mercurago Mercurago Mercurago Mercurago Egyptian (1500 BC) Egyptian Assyrian (700 BC) Assyrian Greek (400 BC) Greek Etruscan (400 BC) Etruscan Roman (300 BC) Roman Etruscan (300 BC) Etruscan Plaustrum (200 BC) Plaustrum Roman (100 AD) Roman Leonardo Leonardo Pneumatic Studded (1907) Pneumatic Gearing Gearing Purposes Friction - no teeth (Aristotle, 384 BC) Materials Wood - large units transmitting power bronze or brass - timekeeping, astronomy Lanthorne & trundle Helical gears (Robert Hooke, 1666 AD) Early Machines in Egypt Early Hero of Alexandria (BC/AD) Lever (3000 BC) Wheel & Axle (3000 BC) Wedge (3000 BC) Pulley (700 BC) - Not used in pyramids Screw Chinese Chinese Cast iron (350 BC) 13 centuries before the west Double-acting box bellows Steel (100 BC) Papermaking (100 AD) Gunpowder Little technology transfer to west Little despite “Silk Road” despite Greece Greece Heavily Heavily dependent on slaves Great builders Architecture Scientists instead of technologists Mathematics, Astronomy, Philosophy Not great inventors Archimedes Horizontal waterwheel (Norse mill) 0.5 horsepower Architecture - Parthenon Architecture Horizontal Waterwheel Horizontal Roman Roman Heavily dependent on slaves Vertical waterwheel (Vitruvius, 180 AD) 3.0 horsepower Bridges & roads Aqueducts Aqueducts Water usage 270 liters per person per day Lead pipes Fall of Roman empire Vertical Waterwheel Vertical Roads & Bridges Roads Aqueducts Aqueducts Dark Ages Dark Fall of Roman empire (450 AD) Contact between Rome and Britain ended Roman roads, bridges & aqueducts died Societies depended less on slaves England (250 people per watermill) Early applications Corn milling, beer making, forge hammers and bellows Later applications water lifting & irrigation, saw mills, lathe drives, wire drawing Dark Ages (continued) Dark Wind Power (1100 AD) Post Mill (Normandy, 1180 AD) Tower Mill (1300 AD) Netherlands (1500 AD) Agriculture Horse collar Nailed iron horseshoes heavy wheeled plough and harrow Dark Ages (continued) Dark Textiles Rope driven spinning wheel Weaving technologies (1300 AD) Universities founded (Italy, 1200 AD) Start of a period of higher learning Beginning of engineering discipline ? THE THIRD AGE THE The First Machine Age The First Machine Age The Timekeeping Optics Crank Print Timekeeping Timekeeping Chronology Chronology Gnomon (Egypt, 1500 BC) Obelisk Sundial Waterclock Sandglass Mechanical Electronic / Pendulum Gnomon Gnomon Sundial / Obelisk Sundial Problems with Gnomon Thin short rod Did not work at different latitudes length and direction of shadow varied Exact position of sun’s center Placed perpendicular to ground needs to be perpendicular with axis of rotation Waterclocks & Sandglasses Waterclocks Reset periodically Environment dependence Variations with age Inaccurate Vitruvius (150 BC) Vitruvius Schott Schott Cingalese Cingalese Sand-glass Sand-glass Mechanical Clock Mechanical Regulating device Creates oscillations Needs energy to stop from running down weight or spring (watch) Distribution mechanism Supplies energy in correct amount and at Supplies correct time correct Holds energy and allows energy to escape Holds at the correct time - escapement at Indexing & Gearing Translates time to space Hero of Alexandria Hero Verge & Foliot Verge Anchor Escapement Anchor Standard Weight Clock Standard Alarm Clock Alarm Pendulum Clock Pendulum Isochronous motion Galileo (1583) Vincenzo (1649) Huygens (1675) & Robert Hooke Regulating hair spring Pendulum Clock Pendulum Huygens (1675) Huygens Regulating spiral Giovani di Dondi (1364) Giovani Electronic / Atomic Electronic pico-second Electronic quartz crystal produces a constant current quartz when excited when compressed to produce constant compressed frequency frequency Atomic Excitations of electrons in Caesium Excitations molecule molecule Caesium Atomic clock Caesium Optics Optics Telescope Johannes Lippershey (Middleburg, 1608) By accident - no knowledge of optics Manufactured & sold in London (1609) Microscope Inventor unknown Zacharius Jansen, Galileo (1614) Surveyors quadrant (1631) Earliest - Joseph Lusuerg (Rome, 1674) Crank Crank Conversion Conversion of rotary & reciprocating motions motions Cam - Hero of Alexandria Crank & connecting rod (1430) Crank & Connecting Rod Crank Print Print Greatest invention of Middle ages Johannes Gutenberg (Germany, 1440) Invention of paper reached Germany in Invention about 1320 about Cutting of punches from brass, punch Cutting copper plate, pour molten iron copper Development of inks First book (Caxton, 1474) By 1500, 1050 presses in Europe Screw Press Screw THE FOURTH AGE THE Intimations of Automation Intimations of Automation Intimations Coinage - first mass production ? Factory system Interchangeability of components A computer too early Coinage Coinage As early as 600 BC Coin Blanks (1000) Sheet of metal, hammered, then cut Bramante (Florence, 1500) Utilized screw press Rolling mills Boulton (Soho, 1797) Utilized power from steam engine Factory System Factory Began with print shops and mints Textile industry (late 1700’s) Flying shuttle (Kay, 1755) Water frame (Arkwright, 1790) Spinning Jenny (Hargreave, 1760) Mule (Crompton, 1788) Power Loom (Robert, 1825) Primarily operated by steam Factory System (continued) Factory Industrial cities Coal and oil in addition to steam No need to locate industry by a river Britain Liverpool, Manchester, Glasgow, Leeds, Nottingham, Birmingham Metal-working industries Machines create more machines llathes, boring, milling, shaping, slotting, athes, planing, grinding, & gear-cutting planing, James Watt’s Micrometer (1772) (1772) Henry Maudslay’s Screw Cutting Lathe (1797) Cutting Interchangeability of Components Components Beginning of mass production Locks Joseph Bramah (1790) Required accuracy in production Barrel of lock fits casing of another Smooth bore flintlock muskets Eli Whitney (1798) Supplied US govt. with 15,000 Required 8 years A Computer Too Early Computer Charles Babbage Professor of Mathematics, Cambridge Difference Engine (1833) Special purpose calculating machine Analytical Engine (>1834) Universal calculator Engine ? Power by steam (no foresight) Purely Purely mechanical with highly precise gearing and machining gearing Difference Engine (1833) Difference THE FIFTH AGE THE The Expansion of Steam Pre-Steam Pre-Steam Francesca della Porta (1606) Suction caused by condensing steam Ability to draw up water Otto von Guericke (1654) Two teams of 8 horses can’t pull apart Two copper sphere made of two halves copper Blaise Pascal (1648) Weight of column of air is less at elevation Robert Boyle (1660) Gas laws Steam Engine Steam Hero of Alexandria Newcomen (1712) 21 inch dia. piston (12 strokes per min) 10 gallons of water 51 yards per stroke Low efficiency Watt Condense steam & create vacuum Separate condenser (1769) Double-acting engine (1782) Rotative Engine (1781) Newcomen (1712) Newcomen Development of Steam Development Trevithick (1799) High pressure steam Fulton (1807) Clermont on Hudson river Clermont Sirius crossed Atlantic (1830) Intercontinental Railway THE SIXTH AGE THE The Freedom of Internal The Combustion Combustion Chronology Chronology Huygens Huygens utilized gunpowder in piston and cylinder and Etienne Lenoir (1859) Coal gas as fuel with ignition Nikolaus Otto (1877) Four-stroke cycle Gottlieb Daimler (1885) Petrol as fuel Benz Tricycle (1855) Benz Chronology (continued) Chronology Paris-Rouen race (1894) Rudolf Diesel (1892) Wright Brothers (1903) Ford Model “A” (1903) THE SEVENTH AGE THE Electrons Controlled Chronology Chronology Gas Lines (Late 1700s) Philippe Lebon (1799) Gas From Heating Wood Frederick Windsor (1807) Gas From Coal Lit Pall Mall in London (1807) 26 mile long main (1816) Hydraulic Mains Joseph Bramah Hydraulic Press (1795) Hydraulic Mains (1812) Chronology (continued) Chronology Electricity William Gilbert (1600) Alessandro Volta (1800s) Zinc and Silver discs- Voltaic Pile First True Battery - Static Source of Power Michael Faraday (1831) First Electric Generator Moved Magnet near a Wire Wheatstone & Cooke (1845) Substituted Electromagnets First Dynamo Chronology (continued) Chronology Telephone - Bell (1876) Incandescent Light Bulb (1879) Thomas Edison - USA J.W. Swan - England Electronics J.A. Fleming - Diode (1904) ASCC/IBM - First computer ? (1944) Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator Mechanical Switching ENIAC - First Electronic Computer (1946) Electronic Num. Integrator and Calculator ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course EGN 2031 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of South Florida - Tampa.

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