intro2 - THE SECOND AGE THE The Farmer The Smith The The...

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Unformatted text preview: THE SECOND AGE THE The Farmer, The Smith, The The Wheel The Farmer, Smith, Wheel Farmer, Social influences of copper and iron The Common ground The wheel Glass Gearing Early machines in Egypt Greece & Rome The Dark ages Introduction Introduction Nomadic hunter to agricultural villager End of last ice age brought life (10,000 End BC) BC) Wild wheat and goat grass Wild Wheat, barley, & millet was harvested Villages grew to cities reed & mud, unbaked clay, baked brick Animals were domesticated Copper, tin, & bronze (Mesopotamia) Social Influences of Copper & Iron Copper Cause Copper and Bronze Copper were expensive were Skill Craftsman Metals were used for Metals ornaments ornaments Society was a hierarchy Ironmaking & forging Ironmaking was complex was Iron was inexpensive Effect Metal tools expensive Farmers used wood, Farmers stone, & bone tools stone, Elitist Society Small agricultural Small surpluses surpluses Democratic metal IRON AGE The Common Ground The Metallurgy became the common ground Society needed food Farming community needed tools Metal workers became skilled craftsmen Mining of Ores (Copper, Tin, Iron) Construction of Furnaces & Crucibles Bellows (3,000 BC) from skins/hides Transportation (wheel !) industry grew Plough Plough Not possible in Copper age Improvement of hoe for tilling Caschrom - lightweight man-plough Animal-drawn plough (3,000 BC) Egyptian Hand Digging Instrument (1500 BC) Instrument Tools From Early Metallurgy Tools Plough Copper Nails & Rivets (Egypt, 2500 BC) Iron nails used in ships Woodscrews (Roman, 400 AD) Shears (Egypt, 4500 BC) The Wheel The Used for transporting heavy loads Evolved from potters wheel First was stone ? Solid wood Solid Spoked Axle - Egyptian war chariot Transporting Heavy Loads Transporting Stretcher Stretcher Sledge Sledge Ur (3,500 BC) Ur Mercurago Mercurago Mercurago Mercurago Egyptian (1500 BC) Egyptian Assyrian (700 BC) Assyrian Greek (400 BC) Greek Etruscan (400 BC) Etruscan Roman (300 BC) Roman Etruscan (300 BC) Etruscan Plaustrum (200 BC) Plaustrum Roman (100 AD) Roman Leonardo Leonardo Pneumatic Studded (1907) Pneumatic Gearing Gearing Purposes Friction - no teeth (Aristotle, 384 BC) Materials Wood - large units transmitting power bronze or brass - timekeeping, astronomy Lanthorne & trundle Helical gears (Robert Hooke, 1666 AD) Early Machines in Egypt Early Hero of Alexandria (BC/AD) Lever (3000 BC) Wheel & Axle (3000 BC) Wedge (3000 BC) Pulley (700 BC) - Not used in pyramids Screw Chinese Chinese Cast iron (350 BC) 13 centuries before the west Double-acting box bellows Steel (100 BC) Papermaking (100 AD) Gunpowder Little technology transfer to west Little despite “Silk Road” despite Greece Greece Heavily Heavily dependent on slaves Great builders Architecture Scientists instead of technologists Mathematics, Astronomy, Philosophy Not great inventors Archimedes Horizontal waterwheel (Norse mill) 0.5 horsepower Architecture - Parthenon Architecture Horizontal Waterwheel Horizontal Roman Roman Heavily dependent on slaves Vertical waterwheel (Vitruvius, 180 AD) 3.0 horsepower Bridges & roads Aqueducts Aqueducts Water usage 270 liters per person per day Lead pipes Fall of Roman empire Vertical Waterwheel Vertical ...
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