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intro3 - Roads& Bridges Roads Aqueducts Aqueducts Dark...

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Unformatted text preview: Roads & Bridges Roads Aqueducts Aqueducts Dark Ages Dark Fall of Roman empire (450 AD) Contact between Rome and Britain ended Roman roads, bridges & aqueducts died Societies depended less on slaves England (250 people per watermill) Early applications Corn milling, beer making, forge hammers and bellows Later applications water lifting & irrigation, saw mills, lathe drives, wire drawing Dark Ages (continued) Dark Wind Power (1100 AD) Post Mill (Normandy, 1180 AD) Tower Mill (1300 AD) Netherlands (1500 AD) Agriculture Horse collar Nailed iron horseshoes heavy wheeled plough and harrow Dark Ages (continued) Dark Textiles Rope driven spinning wheel Weaving technologies (1300 AD) Universities founded (Italy, 1200 AD) Start of a period of higher learning Beginning of engineering discipline ? THE THIRD AGE THE The First Machine Age The First Machine Age The Timekeeping Optics Crank Print Timekeeping Timekeeping Chronology Chronology Gnomon (Egypt, 1500 BC) Obelisk Sundial Waterclock Sandglass Mechanical Electronic / Pendulum Gnomon Gnomon Sundial / Obelisk Sundial Problems with Gnomon Thin short rod Did not work at different latitudes length and direction of shadow varied Exact position of sun’s center Placed perpendicular to ground needs to be perpendicular with axis of rotation Waterclocks & Sandglasses Waterclocks Reset periodically Environment dependence Variations with age Inaccurate Vitruvius (150 BC) Vitruvius Schott Schott Cingalese Cingalese Sand-glass Sand-glass Mechanical Clock Mechanical Regulating device Creates oscillations Needs energy to stop from running down weight or spring (watch) Distribution mechanism Supplies energy in correct amount and at Supplies correct time correct Holds energy and allows energy to escape Holds at the correct time - escapement at Indexing & Gearing Translates time to space Hero of Alexandria Hero Verge & Foliot Verge Anchor Escapement Anchor Standard Weight Clock Standard ...
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