intro5 - Optics Optics Telescope Johannes Lippershey...

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Unformatted text preview: Optics Optics Telescope Johannes Lippershey (Middleburg, 1608) By accident - no knowledge of optics Manufactured & sold in London (1609) Microscope Inventor unknown Zacharius Jansen, Galileo (1614) Surveyors quadrant (1631) Earliest - Joseph Lusuerg (Rome, 1674) Crank Crank Conversion Conversion of rotary & reciprocating motions motions Cam - Hero of Alexandria Crank & connecting rod (1430) Crank & Connecting Rod Crank Print Print Greatest invention of Middle ages Johannes Gutenberg (Germany, 1440) Invention of paper reached Germany in Invention about 1320 about Cutting of punches from brass, punch Cutting copper plate, pour molten iron copper Development of inks First book (Caxton, 1474) By 1500, 1050 presses in Europe Screw Press Screw THE FOURTH AGE THE Intimations of Automation Intimations of Automation Intimations Coinage - first mass production ? Factory system Interchangeability of components A computer too early Coinage Coinage As early as 600 BC Coin Blanks (1000) Sheet of metal, hammered, then cut Bramante (Florence, 1500) Utilized screw press Rolling mills Boulton (Soho, 1797) Utilized power from steam engine Factory System Factory Began with print shops and mints Textile industry (late 1700’s) Flying shuttle (Kay, 1755) Water frame (Arkwright, 1790) Spinning Jenny (Hargreave, 1760) Mule (Crompton, 1788) Power Loom (Robert, 1825) Primarily operated by steam Factory System (continued) Factory Industrial cities Coal and oil in addition to steam No need to locate industry by a river Britain Liverpool, Manchester, Glasgow, Leeds, Nottingham, Birmingham Metal-working industries Machines create more machines llathes, boring, milling, shaping, slotting, athes, planing, grinding, & gear-cutting planing, James Watt’s Micrometer (1772) (1772) Henry Maudslay’s Screw Cutting Lathe (1797) Cutting Interchangeability of Components Components Beginning of mass production Locks Joseph Bramah (1790) Required accuracy in production Barrel of lock fits casing of another Smooth bore flintlock muskets Eli Whitney (1798) Supplied US govt. with 15,000 Required 8 years A Computer Too Early Computer Charles Babbage Professor of Mathematics, Cambridge Difference Engine (1833) Special purpose calculating machine Analytical Engine (>1834) Universal calculator Engine ? Power by steam (no foresight) Purely Purely mechanical with highly precise gearing and machining gearing Difference Engine (1833) Difference THE FIFTH AGE THE The Expansion of Steam Pre-Steam Pre-Steam Francesca della Porta (1606) Suction caused by condensing steam Ability to draw up water Otto von Guericke (1654) Two teams of 8 horses can’t pull apart Two copper sphere made of two halves copper Blaise Pascal (1648) Weight of column of air is less at elevation Robert Boyle (1660) Gas laws Steam Engine Steam Hero of Alexandria Newcomen (1712) 21 inch dia. piston (12 strokes per min) 10 gallons of water 51 yards per stroke Low efficiency Watt Condense steam & create vacuum Separate condenser (1769) Double-acting engine (1782) Rotative Engine (1781) Newcomen (1712) Newcomen Development of Steam Development Trevithick (1799) High pressure steam Fulton (1807) Clermont on Hudson river Clermont Sirius crossed Atlantic (1830) Intercontinental Railway THE SIXTH AGE THE The Freedom of Internal The Combustion Combustion Chronology Chronology Huygens Huygens utilized gunpowder in piston and cylinder and Etienne Lenoir (1859) Coal gas as fuel with ignition Nikolaus Otto (1877) Four-stroke cycle Gottlieb Daimler (1885) Petrol as fuel Benz Tricycle (1855) Benz Chronology (continued) Chronology Paris-Rouen race (1894) Rudolf Diesel (1892) Wright Brothers (1903) Ford Model “A” (1903) THE SEVENTH AGE THE Electrons Controlled Chronology Chronology Gas Lines (Late 1700s) Philippe Lebon (1799) Gas From Heating Wood Frederick Windsor (1807) Gas From Coal Lit Pall Mall in London (1807) 26 mile long main (1816) Hydraulic Mains Joseph Bramah Hydraulic Press (1795) Hydraulic Mains (1812) Chronology (continued) Chronology Electricity William Gilbert (1600) Alessandro Volta (1800s) Zinc and Silver discs- Voltaic Pile First True Battery - Static Source of Power Michael Faraday (1831) First Electric Generator Moved Magnet near a Wire Wheatstone & Cooke (1845) Substituted Electromagnets First Dynamo Chronology (continued) Chronology Telephone - Bell (1876) Incandescent Light Bulb (1879) Thomas Edison - USA J.W. Swan - England Electronics J.A. Fleming - Diode (1904) ASCC/IBM - First computer ? (1944) Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator Mechanical Switching ENIAC - First Electronic Computer (1946) Electronic Num. Integrator and Calculator ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course EGN 2031 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of South Florida - Tampa.

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