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nonmetal - NON-METALLIC NON-METALLIC MATERIALS Non-Metallic...

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Unformatted text preview: NON-METALLIC NON-METALLIC MATERIALS Non-Metallic Materials Non-Metallic Pottery Ceramics Glass Rubber Plastic Adhesives Explosives Pottery & Ceramics Dawn Of Civilization (Pre 6000 BC) Baked In The Sun Or Camp Fires Clay Primarily Hydrated Aluminum Silicates Also Alkalis, Alkaline Earths, & Iron Oxides (Red) Plastic When Wet Procedure Mix Clay With 8-15% Water & Then Form Dry & Fire Object At 450-7500C To Drive Off Water Higher Temps Cause Clay To Vitrify & Fuse Not Achieved In Ancient Times Pottery & Ceramics (Continued) Egypt & Mesopotamia Potter’s Wheel Kiln Fueled With Wood Or Charcoal Reached Temperatures Of 10000C Glazing Substance Which Turns To Glass After Firing Egyptian Blue Glaze White Sand, Natron, Limestone, Copper (Blue) Assyrian (700 BC) Lead-Oxide Based Glazes (Yellow) Greeks (600 BC) Black & Red Glaze Pottery & Ceramics (Continued) Luster Ware Middle East (800s) Spain (1300s) Procedure Powered Sulfides Of Copper & Silver Applied To An Object With A Tin-Lead Glaze Heated To Leave A Lustrous Layer Of Copper & Silver Italy - Majolica (1400s - 1500s) Applied Tin-Lead Glazes To Sculptures Pottery & Ceramics (Continued) Chinese Porcelain Constituents Infusible - Kaolin (China Clay) Fusible - Mixture Of Feldspar, Clay, & Quartz Fired At 14000C Various Colors (Blue From Cobalt) Imported From Persia (14th & 15 Centuries) Earliest Porcelain Sung Dynasty (960 - 1127) Glorious Perfection (Ming Vases) Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Pottery & Ceramics (Continued) Pottery European Porcelain Tried To Duplicate Chinese Needed Kaolin (China Clay) Porcelain Halfway Between Pottery & Glass German Johann Friedrich Bottger (Early 1700s) Used Kaolin (Sold As Wig Powder) & Feldspar England (Mid To Late 1700s) Powered Glass & White Clay Josiah Wedgewood Added Crushed Flint (4 Parts to 22 Parts White Clay) White Throughout Object Pioneered Steam In Pottery Industry (1782) Pottery & Ceramics (Continued) Ceramics Greek “Kerameikos” - Potters Quarter Of Athens Articles Made By Forming & Firing Clay Modern Definition Any Inorganic Substance Which, When Baked, Attains The Familiar Rock-Like Hardness Properties Mechanical - Thermal & Compressive Strength Weathering Electrical - Insulators & Resistors Pottery & Ceramics (Continued) Uses Bell-Shaped Insulators For Telegraph (1850s) Lined Vessels - Acids Iron & Steel Industries Magnesite Bricks Bessemer Converter Dolomite Lined Vessels Glass Glass Ingredients Sand (15 Parts) - Silica (Quartz Or Crushed Flint) Soda Ash (5 Parts) - Fern Plants Lime (4 Parts) Procedure Melt Inorganic Substances Cool Without Allowing Crystallization Molecules Don’t Arrange In Regular Patterns Produces Rigid Liquid (Not A Solid) Glass (Continued) Glass Primitive Man Obsidian - Glassy Volcanic Rock Egypt (4000 BC) Colored Opaque Glaze On Beads Roman Empire Blowing Iron (1st Century BC) Britain George Ravenscroft (1673) Lead Glass (Crystal) Added Lead Oxide Heavy With High Refractive Index Glass (Continued) Glass Chinese Magnifying Glasses (10th Century) Italy Spectacles For Long Sight (13th Century) Telescope Johannes Lippershey - Netherlands (1608) Galileo (1609) Microscope Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1590) Robert Hooke (Mid 1600s) First Compound Microscope ...
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