rail1 - RAILROADS RAILROADS Railroads Railroads Tracks...

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Unformatted text preview: RAILROADS RAILROADS Railroads Railroads Tracks Steam Traction Development of Railroads Railroad Tracks Railroad Wooden Rails Cast-Iron Rails Wrought Iron & Steel Rails Rail Size & Capacity Evolution Of Rails Joints Track Gauge Wooden Tracks Wooden Also Called Wagonways Tramroads - Tram Was Originally A Coal Wagon Built In England As Early As 16th Century Coal, Ore, & Stone From Mines Or Quarries First Wagonways Parallel Lines Of Planks Greater Speeds, Rough Surface Crossties Introduced Wooden Tracks Faced With Iron Strips Modern Rails Modern First Cast-Iron Rails British Foundry (1767) Toothed Rail Patent - British Coal Miner (1811) Rack & Pinion On Third Rail Still Used - Pikes Peak & Swiss Mountains Modern Rails Evolved From Edge Rails in Northern England Early 19th Century Flange On Inside Of Wheel Modern Rails (Continued) Modern Prototype Flat-Footed “T” Rail Robert Livingston Stevens (1830) President Of Camden & Amboy Railroad Stands On Base Wider Than Head Of “T” Could Be Inverted Tie Plates - Prevents Cutting Into Tie Bridge Rail Inverted “U” Shape Longitudinal Timbers Great Western Railway - England Till 1892 Modern Rails (Continued) Modern Bullhead Rail - Also Called Double-Headed Evolved From “I” Shaped Rail From 1835 Thicker, Wider Head Than “I” Rail Also Called Double-Headed Rail Could Be Inverted In Theory Wrought-Iron & Steel Rails Wrought-Iron Wrought-Iron Rails Introduced In England In 1820s Steel Rails Manufactured In US in 1865 Transverse Fissures Inside Controlled Cooling & Inspection Hardened Ends Rail Size & Capacity Rail Early Railroads 40 lb/yd, 3 ft Early 20th Century 60 lb/yd, 30 ft 1930s 100 to 130 lb/yd, 40 ft Today 152 to 155 lb/yd, 45 to 60 ft Evolution Of Rail Shapes Evolution Around 1800 Cast-Iron Rail (1820-1830) Evolution Of Rail Shapes Evolution Bridge Rail - Inverted U Bordeaux-Sete Line Bridge Rail - Brunel Continuous timber Double-Headed Rail Joints Joints Problems Joint Is Weak Spot - Lengthen Rail Expansion & Contraction - Buckling Butt Welded Joints - Up To 0.25 miles Bars Bolted To Sides - Stevens Wider Tie Plates Anticreepers Gauge Gauge Distance Between Inner Edges Measured 0.626” Below Head Standard - 56.5” US, Canada, GB, Mexico, Sweden, Europe Standard - Speculation From Early Tramroads Accommodate Wagons With Axle Length = 60” Head Width - 1.75” On Early Rails Narrow Gauge In US - 3 ft Fills & Clearances, Lighter Rails, Tighter Turns 917 miles In US (1871) Gauge (continued) Gauge Third Rail ? Central & South America - 66 inches Spain & Portugal - 66 inches Former Soviet Union - 60 inches Ireland - 64 inches South Africa & Japan - 42 inches India - 66 inches Australia - Various Gauges Steam Traction Steam Early Developments Trevithick, Rack Locomotive, Puffing Billy, Walking Trevithick, Locomotive, Stephenson Locomotive, Early Railroad Lines & Companies Rainhill Competition Railroads In France Railroads In United States Railroads Evolution of Locomotive Increased Speed Advancements Trevithick’s Attempts Trevithick’s Richard Trevithick Pioneer Of All Locomotive Pioneer Builders Builders 5 Ton Locomotive (1804) Pulled 20 Tons @ 5 mph Cylinder 8.25” Diameter 54” Stroke Fractured Cast-Iron Rails 8 Ton Locomotive (1808) 12 mph Rack Locomotives Rack John Blenkinsop (1811) Cogwheel & Rack Advantages Heavier Load Steeper Grade Colliery Railways Middleton - Leads (1812) Coxloge - Tyne (1813) Double-Acting Cylinders Puffing Billy Puffing William Hedley (1813) Concerned With Concerned Weight/Pull Ratio Weight/Pull Too Heavy For Rails Converted to 8 Wheels 1815 Converted Converted Wheels Wheels 1830 Back to 4 Walking Locomotive Walking Brunton Of Butterly Built In 1812 Tried to Solve Weight/Pull Tried Problem Problem Stephenson’s Blucher (1814,1815) Stephenson’s George Stephenson Worked In Colliery Two Vertical Cylinders 8” diameter, 24” Stroke Pulled 30 tons @ 4 mph 8 Times Weight, 2/900 Grade Innovations Flanged Wheels Connecting Rod Patent (1815) Suspension Using Pistons & Suspension Steam Pres. On Pillow Blocks Steam Early Railroad Lines & Companies Early Stockton - Darlington Opened 1821 12 miles Long Chief Engineer George Stephenson Leader In Production Locomotion (1825) 8 tons, 50 tons, 5 mph Lancashire Winch (1828) 7 tons, 50 tons, 8 mph Passengers Carry (1823) Car - 21 People (1825) Manchester - Liverpool Major Traffic Loverpool - Port (Cotton) Manchester - Textiles Railway Began 1824 Finished 1830 Reduced Time 36 Hours By Canal 5 Hours By Rail First Railroad Bridge 21 Stationary Engines Pulled Cable Rainhill Competition (1829) Rainhill 500 Pounds Plus Cost Of Engine Conditions Pull 3 Times Weight, 10 mph, 15 miles Stephenson’s Rocket 4.25 tons, Pulled 12.75 tons, Averaged 13.8 mph, 4.25 Maximum 24.1 mph, Light Load 31 mph Maximum John Braithwaite’s Novelty 7.7 tons, 13.8 mph, Broke Down Timothy Hackworth’s Sans Pareil 4.77 tons, 16 mph, Broke Down Two Other Entries Stephenson’s Rocket Stephenson’s George & Robert Two Inclined Cylinders 6” Bore, 12” Stroke 50” Diameter Front Wheel Fire Tube Boiler 25 Copper Tubes 3” Diameter Exhaust Exhaust Steam Injected At Base Of Smokestack At Advantage ? Science Museum Science London Railways In France Railways Lagged Considerably Behind Great Britain Mine Owners In France Pushed Development Saint-Etienne to Andrezieux (1828) 9.5 miles Horses, Carriages, & Cables Saint-Etienne to Lyon (1832) United Loire & Rhone Steam, Horses, & Cables Included Tunnel (1st) & Two Bridges 2 hours, 35 minutes (40 miles) Marc Seguin Marc First First Builder Of Suspension Bridges Suspension Built Fire-Tube Boiler Built For Steam Boat For Hot Gases From Firebox Patent - 1828 Copy Of Stephenson’s ? Marc Seguin Marc Bought Bought Engines From Stephenson & Copied Design Design Added Fan & Bellows Increased Draft Shorter Smokestack 36 minutes To Build Up 36 Pressure Pressure 4.5 tons Pulled 15 tons Evolution Of Locomotive Evolution Rocket Tubular Boiler, Separate Firebox, Direct Drive Tubular Without Gears, Better Steam Distribution Without Vertical Cylinders Unstable At High Speeds Horizontal cylinder Inside Boiler Increased Number Of Tubes Planet Locomotive Planet Stephensons (1832) Built For LiverpoolManchester Railroad 8 tons Lancaster Lancaster Matthias Baldwin (1834) Built For CharlestonHamburg Railroad Front Swiveling Truck Railroads In United States Railroads Started Same Time As In England & France United States Was Industrially Underdeveloped 13,000,000 People, 5 Cities Greater Than 25,000 Cost Per Mile 1/4 Of European 1/7 Of British Miles 23 miles By 1830 2818 miles By 1840 Erie Canal Opened In 1825 First Locomotive Built In US First Peter Cooper (1830) Built For Baltimore & Built Ohio Railroad Ohio Best Friend Best 1830 Built Built By Westpoint Foundry Association Foundry Built For South Carolina Built Railroad Railroad Grasshopper Grasshopper 1834 Built Built By Cullingham & Winans Winans Built For Baltimore & Built Ohio Railroad Ohio ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course EGN 2031 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of South Florida - Tampa.

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