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Unformatted text preview: TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE TELEGRAPH Outline Outline Visual Telegraphy Electric Telegraphy Telegraph Lines Telephone Visual Telegraphy Visual Claude Chappe (1763-1805) Built By Abraham Bruguet (1793) Clockmaker Could Have Been Built Earlier (100 Years) Lacked Telescope Stations Too Close First Stations Menilmontant Saint-Martin-du-Tertre (21 Miles Away First Line Paris to Lille Chappe Semaphore System Chappe Masonry Towers Wooden “T” Wooden Horizontal Beam (Regulator) Pivoted On Axis Jointed Arms (Indicator) Pivoted On Regulator Ends Cranks & Ropes 196 Different Positions Chappe Code - 92 Positions Diplomatic Dictionary 92 Pages - First Signal 92 Words Per Page - Second Signal Second Dictionary - Phrases Chappe Semaphore System Slowed Development Of Electric Telegraph France Nothing New Technologically Increased Communication Calais To Paris 33 Posts, 58 Leagues, 3 Minutes Toulon To Paris 10 Posts, 200 Leagues, 20 Minutes Used Extensively In WW I Still Used - Aircraft Carriers Electric Telegraphy Electric Electric Battery Electromagnetism First Electric Telegraphs Relays Alphabetical Devices First French Telegraphic Devices Printing Devices Morse System Telegraph Lines Machinery & Electrical Industry Machinery Electric Battery Electric Telegraph - Electric Current Continuous Permanent Voltaic Pile - Not Satisfactory Cesar Bequerel (1828) Two-Fluid Class J.F. Daniell (1836) Daniell Cell Reliable Contiuous Electromagnetism Electromagnetism Conductor Traversed By Electric Current Magnetic Needle Moves Georges-Louis Lesage (1774) Dischages Of Static Electricity From Leydon Jar 24 Wires For Alphabet Underground - Conductors Insulated By Glass Ampere (1820) Deviation Of Magnetic Needle Electromagnetism (Continued) Electromagnetism Baron Schilling (1832) Six Indicators & Six Wires Black Side & White Side Two Additional Wires Call Signs Return Current Carl-August von Steinheil Single Circuit (1827) Return Current Through Ground (1828) First Electric Telegraphs First Euston & Camden In London (1837) 40 Years After Chappe 1 Mile Long Sir William F. Cooke (1806-1879) Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875) Five Needles & Circuits With Six Wires Wheatstone & Clarke (1842) Two Needle Instrument Alexander Bain (1843) Single Needle Instrument Five Needle Telegraph By W & C Telegraph Wheatstone Wheatstone (1837) (1837) Top Receiver Bottom Transmitter & Cooke Local Circuit Of W & C Telegraph Local Left - Relay Right - Calling Device Transmitting-Receiving Post Transmitting-Receiving Built By Wheatstone & Clarke (1842) Two Needle Instrument Right Transmitters & Connections Left General View First Electric Telegraphs First Electromagnet (1820s) Ampere & Arago Coarse Wires With Few Coils Inappropriate For Operation Over Long Distances Took 20 Years To Be Adopted In Telegraph Telegraphic Devices Alphabetical Telegraph Electric Telegraph With Chappe Signals Morse System Relays Relays Wheatstone (1837) Electrochemical Close Circuit From A Distance “U” Shaped Tube Acidulated Water & Mercury Current Causes Hydrogen To Current Be Liberated Be Pressure Cause Mercury To Pressure Close Circuit Of Sounding Device Device Relays Relays Wheatstone (1839) Close Circuit From A Distance Needle In Center Of Frame Fork Shaped Contact At One Fork End End Current Caused Fork To Plunge Current Into Containers Of Mercury Into Closed Local Circuit Closed Alphabetical Devices Alphabetical Wheatstone & Cooke Clock Movement At Each Post Pointer Turned In Jerks Many Variations Replaced Needle Devices First French Telegraphic Devices First Louis Breguet (1844) Same Concept As Wheatstone 2 Needles - Chappe System Escapement Right - Transmitter Left - Receiver First French Telegraphic Devices Keyboard Sender Gustave Froment (1845) Replaced Crank Sender Of Breguet’s Printing Devices Printing Wheatstone Replaced Dial And Pointer On Replaced Alphabetical Alphabetical 24 Radiating Arms With Letter Engraved Hammer Presses On Recording Cylinder Separate Control Circuit John W. Brett (1805-1863) Modified Keyboard Idea Of Froment Printing Devices Printing David E. Hughes (1831- 1900) Best Idea Synchonized Transmitter Receiver Morse System Morse Samuel F. B. Morse (1791-1872) Painter Turned Physicist & Mechanic Modern Day da Vinci Numerous Biographies Electromagnet With An Armature Holding A Stylus Left Long & Short Marks On Paper As It Unrolled Tried Ink & Pencil Decided On Rod That Embossed Paper Lacked Experience In Making Electromagnets Studied Works Of Joseph Henry (1797-1878) First Electromagnet Was 2’ High Morse System Morse Simplicity Make Signal With A Simple Mechanical Device Similar Movements Transmitter Receiver Single Code With 2 Elements Short & Long Signals Combinations Of 4 Signals Every Letter Of Alphabet 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 = 2 + 4 + 9 + 16 = 31 Similarities & Symmetry Morse System Morse Manual Transmitter Right - Flexible Blade (First Model) Left - Jointed Lever Type With Reversing Spring Morse System Perfected Morse System (1845) Diagram Of Connections Baltimore To Washington (1845) Adopted Throughout Europe (Beginning 1846) International Communication (1854) Telegraph Lines Telegraph Success Of Telegraph Depended On: Transmitting & Receiving Devices Batteries Transmission Lines First Lines Iron Wires - Poor Results Copper Wires - Tempted Thieves Underground Covered With Cotton & Pitch Insulating Wires In Suspension Telegraph Lines Telegraph Ring Insulator (1845) Insulator With Tension Devices (1845) Porcelein Insulator (1860) Machinery & Electrical Industry Telegraph Produced Numerous Inventions Lightning Rods Cummutators, Relays, Sound Devices, Cummutators, Galvanometers, Measuring Instruments Galvanometers, Telephone New Occupations Physicists To Electrical Engineering First High Tech Occupation In The West Machinery & Electrical Industry Machinery Pixii (1832) Magnetoelectric Motor Froment (1844) Electric Generators Shown - Froment 8 Soft Iron Hubs 4 Elctromagnets Adapted (1855) Power Clocks In Telegraph Machines Telephone Telephone Robert Hooke (1635-1703) “Tis not impossible to hear a whisper a furlong’s Tis distance, it having already been done; and perhaps the nature of the thing would not make it more impossible though that furlong should be ten times multiplied” multiplied” J. Philipp Reis (1834-1874) First Practical Electric Telephone (1861) Just A Toy Telephone Telephone 1876 Alexander Graham Bell - Awarded Patent Based On Hermann Helmholtz’s Work Elisha Gray - Superior Design Alexander Graham Bell Teacher Of Deaf Used No External Power Source Still Can Be Used For Short Distances Transmitter & Receiver Nearly Identical Electromagnetic Microphone ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course EGN 2031 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of South Florida.

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