365s04objectives

365s04objectives - EXAM 1 OBJECTIVES Chapter 1 Biomolecules...

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EXAM 1 OBJECTIVES Chapter 1 – Biomolecules terminology: eukaryotic cells prokaryotic cells organelles nucleus conformation Structural complementarity denaturation Weak chemical forces Supramolecular complex Biopolymer structural polarity Building block Metabolism Metabolite Steady state homeostasis Enzyme ligand ATP NADPH Nucleic acids lipids proteins polysaccharides Covalent bond van der Waals interactions hydrogen bond ionic bond Understand the structural features of representative biopolymers from each of the classes: protein, carbohydrate, and nucleic acid. Know the linkages and residues. Know how to indicate structural polarity. A. Objectives for these functional groups : saturated hydrocarbon unsaturated hydrocarbon hydroxyl sulfhydryl amine aldehyde ketone carboxylic acid amide a -ketoacid b -ketoacid phosphate Is it a weak acid or weak base? Which atoms act as electrophiles or nucleophiles? Any hydrogen bonding acceptors or donors? Any resonance forms of the group? What is the geometry of the group? In which class of biochemicals is the group is commonly found? B. Objectives for these linkages : amide hemiacetal acetal disulfide bond Schiff base(aldimine) acid anhydride ester thioester phosphoester phosphoanhydride acyl phosphate Know which two functional groups form the linkage and the general kind of reaction that forms the linkage C. Objectives for these reaction types : nucleophilic substitution (condensation-hydrolysis) oxidation-reduction addition-elimination (hydration- dehydration) Bronsted-Lowry acid-base Be able to draw structures , or give names , or the product molecules from any of these reactions given two reacting functional groups. Know the order of oxidation/reduction for organic functional groups
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Chapter 2 – Water Problems 1, 3, 6 terminology: Hydration shell Clathrate Hydrophobic interaction Amphipathic Amphiphilic Micelle Osmotic pressure Hydronium ion Hydrogen ion Hydroxide ion pH Electrolyte, strong or weak Conjugate acid- base K a Phosphate system Given the pKa of an acid-base equilibrium and the pH of its’ solution, determine the fractions of the two conjugate forms. Given the pKa of an acid-base equilibrium, the desired pH for a buffer solution, and the desired concentration, determine the concentrations of the two conjugate forms needed. Convert between pH and [H + ]; pK a and K a . Chapter 3 – Energy Problems 1, 3, 6, 10 terminology: Thermodynamics calorie joule enthalpy entropy Gibbs free energy exergonic endergonic standard state coupled process reduced coenzymes high-energy phosphates high-energy thioesters A) In terms of free energy, what is the difference between an exergonic process and an endergonic process? What is meant by coupling of reactions? What is the difference between a reversible reaction and an irreversible reaction in terms of free energy?
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