carboutline

carboutline - anomers termed alpha ( a ) or beta ( b ) form...

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Carbohydrates General Information: Most abundant class of biomolecules (billions of tons of glucose produced annually by photosynthesis ) Functions: Energy - starch, glycogen Cell structure - cellulose, mucopolysaccharides, peptidoglycans Cell Labeling - gangliosides, glycoproteins General Structure: [C(H 2 O)] n classify by: # carbons - trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses carbonyl - aldoses, ketoses (structural isomers if same # carbons) Aldopentoses 3 chiral carbons 8 stereoisomers in straight chain structures (enantiomers, diastereomers, epimers) (Fischer Projections) H's on chiral carbons not shown OH's on chiral carbons as line segments aldehyde is carbon #1 D enantiomers have carbon #4 OH to the right L enantiomers are mirror images of D (all chiral carbons) Straight chain structures in dynamic equilibrium with ring structures (furanose, pyranose) - mutarotation Intramolecular addition reaction - produces another chiral carbon called the anomeric carbon (hemiacetal)
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Unformatted text preview: anomers termed alpha ( a ) or beta ( b ) form of ring structure 16 stereoisomers of furanoses, 16 stereoisomers of pyranoses (Haworth Projections) H's on chiral carbons not shown OH's on chiral carbons as line segments hemiacetal carbon is #1 b anomer of D enantiomer has OH up b anomer of L enantiomer has OH down L enantiomers are mirror images of D (all chiral carbons) OH on Fischer right is down on Haworth nucleophile attack from the "right", bottom of chain "up" complete naming anomer + enantiomer + parent prefix + ring form Aldohexoses 4 chiral carbons 16 stereoisomers in straight chain structures (enantiomers, diastereomers, epimers) (Fischer Projections) D enantiomers have carbon #5 OH to the right (Haworth Projections) 32 stereoisomers of furanoses, 32 stereoisomers of pyranoses...
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