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cellmolecsintro - 2245 50 C Proteins(Enzymes large linear...

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CH 365 BIOCHEMISTRY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CELLS 1. cell wall 2. ribosomes 3. DNA 4. plasma membrane 5. cytoplasm I. Cells (prokaryotic, eukaryotic) The common, smallest unit of all living things is the cell, which is composed of a collection of large, complex organic and inorganic molecules, ions and molecular structures termed the protoplasm. Biomolecules are primarily constructed from only a few chemical elements - C, H, O, N, S and P. Cells consist mainly of water. II. Biochemical functional groups A. Structures - Lewis structures, geometry B. Electronic properties - polar, nonpolar C. Reaction properties - acid/base, nucleophile, electrophile III. Amino acids, peptides and proteins A. Amino acids - molecules with a chiral carbon bonded to H, a carboxylate group, an amino group, and one of 20 characteristic organic side groups B. Peptides- small linear polymers of amino acids (<
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Unformatted text preview: 2245 50) C. Proteins (Enzymes)- large linear polymers of amino acids 1. Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary structure 2. Structural, globular and membrane proteins IV. Nucleotides and nucleic acids A. Nucleotides are composed of phosphate, purine or pyrimidine bases, and ribose or 2-deoxyribose B. Nucleic acids are linear polymers of nucleotides V. Carbohydrates A. Monosaccharides - polyhydroxyaldehydes or polyhydroxyketones with many stereoisomers B. Polysaccharides - polymers of monosaccharides (branched) VI. Lipids A. Diverse structures which have the following properties: insoluble in water; soluble in organic solvents such as alcohol, ether or acetone; amphipathic (membranes) B. Examples - fatty acids, phosphatides, cholesterol...
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