Chapter11

Chapter11 - BCH 4053 Spring 2001 Chapter 11 Lecture Notes...

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Chapter 11, page 1 BCH 4053 Spring 2001 Chapter 11 Lecture Notes Slide 1 Chapter 11 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Slide 2 Nucleic Acids • Two classes • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) • RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) • Polymers of nucleotides • DNA carries genetic information in the form of nucleotide sequence • Central Dogma of Biochemistry • DNA RNA Protein (Figure 11.1) Slide 3 Nucleotides • Composition • Heterocyclic Base • Pentose • Phosphate • Besides being the building blocks of nucleic acids, nucleotides have many roles in metabolism
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Chapter 11, page 2 Slide 4 Heterocyclic Bases—Pyrimidines DNA and RNA RNA only DNA only Slide 5 Heterocyclic Bases –Purines The Purine Ring System: N N N H N NH 2 Adenine Guanine NH N N H N O NH 2 Slide 6 Tautomerism • Oxygen on ring prefers keto form • Nitrogen on ring prefers amino form N N N H N OH NH2 NH N N H N O NH2 Favored Tautomer NH N N H N O NH2 NH N H N H N O NH Favored Tautomer
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Chapter 11, page 3 Slide 7 UV Absorbance of Pyrimidines and Purines • Both Pyrimidines and Purines have strong absorbance in the ultraviolet around 260 nm • See Figure 11.8 • This is a useful property in measuring quantities of nucleic acid in a sample Slide 8 Pentoses Nucleosides are β -N-glycosides of ribose or deoxyribose and a pyrimidine or purine base Slide 9 Nucleosides β glycosidic linkage at N-1 of pyrimidine and N-9 of purine N N N N NH2 O OH OH H H H H HO Adenosine N NH 2 O N O OH OH H H H H HO Cytidine
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Chapter 11, page 4 Slide 10 Nucleosides, con’t. • Two conformations of the glycosidic bond • syn and anti (See Figure 11.12) • See three dimensional models in the Course Links for Chapter 11 Slide 11 Nucleoside Nomenclature • Add –idine to root name of the pyrimidine • cytosine cytidine • uracil uridine • thymine thymidine (ribothymidine) • Add –osine to the root name of the purine • adenine adenosine • guanine guanosine • xanthine xanthosine Except hypoxanthine inosine (See Fig. 11.11) Slide 12 Nucleoside Nomenclature, con’t. • Nucleosides of deoxyribose are deoxyribonucleosides and are prefixed by deoxy • Adenine-ribose = adenosine • Adenine-deoxyribose = deoxyadenosine • Except for thymine • Thymine-ribose is called ribothymidine • Thymine-deoxyribose is called thymidine
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Chapter 11, page 5 Slide 13 Nucleotides • Nucleotides are phosphate esters of nucleosides • Named as “nucleoside-X’-phosphate” where X’ is the ribose position to which the phosphate is attached • Example: adenosine-5’- monophosphate N N N N NH2 O OH OH H H H H O P -O O- O Slide 14 Nucleotides, con’t. • See Figure 11.13 and 11.14 for other
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course CHM 365 taught by Professor Thomaszamis during the Spring '06 term at FSU.

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Chapter11 - BCH 4053 Spring 2001 Chapter 11 Lecture Notes...

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