Power Systems I
The Power Flow Solution
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Most common and important tool in power system
analysis
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also known as the “Load Flow” solution
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used for planning and controlling a system
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assumptions:
balanced condition and single phase analysis
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Problem:
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determine the voltage magnitude and phase angle at each bus
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determine the active and reactive power flow in each line
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each bus has four state variables:
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voltage magnitude
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voltage phase angle
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real power injection
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reactive power injection

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Power Systems I
The Power Flow Solution
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Each bus has two of the four state variables defined or given
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Types of buses:
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Slack bus (swing bus)
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voltage magnitude and angle are specified, reference bus
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solution: active and reactive power injections
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Regulated bus (generator bus, P-V bus)
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models generation-station buses
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real power and voltage magnitude are specified
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solution: reactive power injection and voltage angle
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Load bus (P-Q bus)
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models load-center buses
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active and reactive powers are specified (negative values for loads)
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solution: voltage magnitude and angle