thermo-property - Internal Energy E=U(internal...

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Internal Energy • E=U(internal energy)+KE(kinetic energy)+PE(potential energy) • Extensive property since it depends on the mass of the system, U=mu, where m is the mass of the system, u is the specific energy of the system (an intensive property like temperature and pressure) • Unlike KE & PE, the internal energy is a form of energy measured on a molecular scale. It can consist of different modes: translational kinetic energy of individual molecules, rotational energy and vibrational energies associated with molecules, and intermolecular forces between molecules. The sum of all these molecular-level energies is called the internal energy . • Internal energy is a property of the substance, thus, its change in value between two states is independent of the process . 1 2 Process A Process B
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Enthalpy • H=U+PV, defined as total enthalpy • H=mh, h=u+Pv, specific enthalpy will be an intensive property • It is an important property in many situations, for example, the steady flow process, h=u+P/ ρ
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thermo-property - Internal Energy E=U(internal...

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