# s4_1 - CHAPTER 4 Applications of Methods of Proof 1. Set...

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CHAPTER 4 Applications of Methods of Proof 1. Set Operations 1.1. Set Operations. The set-theoretic operations, intersection, union, and complementation, deﬁned in Chapter 1.1 Introduction to Sets are analogous to the operations , , and ¬ , respectively, that were deﬁned for propositions. Indeed, each set operation was deﬁned in terms of the corresponding operator from logic. We will discuss these operations in some detail in this section and learn methods to prove some of their basic properties. Recall that in any discussion about sets and set operations there must be a set, called a universal set , that contains all others sets to be considered. This term is a bit of a misnomer: logic prohibits the existence of a “set of all sets,” so that there is no one set that is “universal” in this sense. Thus the choice of a universal set will depend on the problem at hand, but even then it will in no way be unique. As a rule we usually choose one that is minimal to suit our needs. For example, if a discussion involves the sets { 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 } and { 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 10 } , we could consider our universe to be the set of natural numbers or the set of integers. On the other hand, we might be able to restrict it to the set of numbers { 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 } . We now restate the operations of set theory using the formal language of logic. 1.2. Equality and Containment. Definition 1.2.1 . Sets A and B are equal , denoted A = B , if x [ x A x B ] Note: This is equivalent to x [( x A x B ) ( x B x A )] . Definition 1.2.2 . Set A is contained in set B (or A is a subset of B ), denoted A B ,if x [ x A x B ] . 96

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1. SET OPERATIONS 97 The above note shows that A = B iﬀ A B and B A. 1.3. Union and Intersection. Definitions 1.3.1 . The union of A and B , A B = { x | ( x A ) ( x B ) } . The intersection of A and B , A B = { x | ( x A ) ( x B ) } . If A B = , then A and B are said to be disjoint . 1.4. Complement. Definition 1.4.1 . The complement of A A = { x U ( x A ) } = { x U | x 6∈ A } . Discussion There are several common notations used for the complement of a set. For exam- ple, A c is often used to denote the complement of A . You may ﬁnd it easier to type A c than A , and you may use this notation in your homework. 1.5. Diﬀerence. Definition 1.5.1 . The diﬀerence of A and B , or the complement of B rela- tive to A , A - B = A B. Definition 1.5.2 . The symmetric diﬀerence of A and B , A B = ( A - B ) ( B - A ) = ( A B ) - ( A B ) . Discussion The diﬀerence and symmetric diﬀerence of two sets are new operations, which were not deﬁned in Module 1.1 . Notice that B does not have to be a subset of A for
1. SET OPERATIONS 98 the diﬀerence to be deﬁned. This gives us another way to represent the complement of a set A ; namely, A = U - A , where U is the universal set.

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## This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course MCH 108 taught by Professor Penelopekirby during the Fall '08 term at FSU.

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s4_1 - CHAPTER 4 Applications of Methods of Proof 1. Set...

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