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China_lectures_Ch13 - MUH 2051/2512 China unit lectures(Ch...

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MUH 2051/2512 China unit lectures (Ch. 13) INTRO: o Play OMI #26 (excerpt, “Fighting the Typhoon”) Focus (musical): a specific instrument, the zheng, and the artistry of a leading virtuoso of that instrument, Deng Haiqiong, most specifically Focus (musicultural): Chinese history, from antiquity to modern times, and the political movements and ideologies that have shaped it o Throughout the long and rich history of Chinese civilization, musical and political life have always been closely intertwined. Musicultural history of the zheng a lens through which to view this music-politics dialectic, and in turn to consider the interconnectedness of musical and political histories in world musics more broadly. We will explore the zheng and its musicultural world across several major historical periods: o Dynastic era (3500 years, up to 1911): Qin, Han, Tang, Ming, Qing dynasties especially [[Many important inventions, discoveries: paper, guns, many foundations of modern medicine and science, sociopolitical/philosophical/religious traditions and systems, music/arts conservatories and institutes, equal temperament in music (16 th c., adopted by West 17 th c.), noodles—see p. 294]] o Republican period (1912-1949) (Jiang Jieshi, a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek) o Communist period Initial Communist period (1949-1965, Mao Zedong) Cultural Revolution (1966-1976, Mao Zedong) Period of Openness (late 1970s/1980-present, Deng Xiaoping and others) While main focus is on the zheng and its musical history, we will also survey other important instruments (qin, pipa) and genres (Beijing Opera) CHINA: AN OVERVIEW (293-95) o [[Students should read and learn this material on their own and be able to link it to Key Terms/Study Questions at end of chapter.]] o Key points: o Very ancient civilization (3500+ years) o Population: 1.3 billion (world’s largest) o Borders nations of five major world regions (N, C, E, S, and SE Asia), incl. Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Vietnam, India, Korea o Close (though often tense) histories of relations with Korea (aak, kayagum), Japan (Zen Buddhism, gagaku —p. 4, CD 1-2 , koto—p. 296 [photo], CD 1-35 ) o Taiwan, Hong Kong
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o People’s Republic of China (PPR) since 1949—single-party communist (socialist) state [though MUCH change in what that means during this period!] o Beijing (capital), Shanghai, plus many other large cities (35 with 1M plus people) o Dense population along east coast, major waterways (espec. Yangtze R.), western China sparsely populated (and home to most of “ethnic minority” populations) o Han Chinese (ethnic group—92%), Mandarin Chinese (language) o “minorities,” 55 incl. Uighur, Tibetan peoples. Minorities about 8% of total population. Histories of Han-minority relations troubled INTRO TO THE ZHENG (295-98) o board zither chordophone (series of strings laid lengthwise across a wooden frame attachedc to its own resonating chamber) o Other (related) insts.: ** koto , kayagum , dan tranh, jatag o archaeological/folkoric record: o earliest prototypes of zheng [five silk strings, bamboo frame] 2500 years ago (age of Confucius [551-479 BCE]); o 237 BCE (Qin era), first written reference: rural musicians who “beat clay
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