Biology of Public Health Notes

Biology of Public Health Notes - Notes: 9/28/11 Vaccine...

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Notes: 9/28/11 Vaccine Concept: reproductive ratio. . herd immunity occurs when: 1- (1/R0) Ex: Influenza: 3-4=R0 1- (1/R0) = 1 – ¼ = ¾ Measles: 1- 1/40= 1-.025= 97.5% Cholesterol: complex molecules with 4 rings Triglycerides: 3 fatty acids + glycerol Saturated- bad Unsaturated- not bad Phospholipids: Fatty acids, triglycerides, or cholesterol Loving water: phospholipids Function of cholesterol: cell membranes would turn into rocks without it! Atherosclerosis- inflammation is involved Atherosclerosis is a generalized and progressive disease that affects the arterial system Leading cause of death world-wide 400 billion per year Risks: age, male sex, hereditary (unmodifiable) Modify risk factors: tobacco smoke, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, physical activity, obesity, diabetes mellitus, stress, alcohol Atherosclerosis usually beings with the epithelium, the inner most layer of the artery Damage can occur because of elevated cholesterol, high blood pressure, tobacco smoke, and diabetes Buildup occurs thickening the arterial wall, decreasing blood flow, and reducing the oxygen in the blood Ischemic Stroke: Blood clot stops the flow of blood to an area of the brain You can have this stroke because of bulge- aneurism. Asians have higher rate of these aneurisms. Subarachnoid; outside of brain stoke (H stroke) Intracerebral- Rare inside of brain burst Lucunar stroke: small lakes where brain tissue has died- just fluid (associated with hypertension) 20% of cardiac output goes to brain Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)::: brief episode of neurologic dysfunction resulting from focal temporary cerebral ischemia not associated with cerebral infarction. Due to lack of blood flow to brain (usually person will experiencing tingling or inability to speak). No permanent damage to brain- kinda like a warning (lasts1-2 hours), Infarction: tissue or cell death Embolism- breaks off and travels up Aspirin can reduce risks 25% if taken once a day for heart attacks Acute MI: just a week, aspirin still helps! WOW. Stroke as well, but not acute stroke Conclusions: Aspirin Reduces recurrence of MI by about 30%
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Secondary prevention!! Conclusion: Aspirin is underutilized, blood pressure is inadequately treated.
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Biology of Public Health Notes - Notes: 9/28/11 Vaccine...

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