0303se05toolbox5 - Energy Transfer Conversion and Storage...

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Unformatted text preview: Energy Transfer, Conversion and Storage Toolbox 5 Sustainable Energy J.W. Tester 1. Multiple scales of energy 2. Energy sources and properties 3. Energy flows and balances 4. Chemical reactions and kinetics 5. Energy transport phenomena and rates 6. Energy storage revisited 7. Discussion of example problems Energy Transfer, Conversion and Storage Toolbox 5 Suggested text readings ¡ Chapter 1, sections 1.2 ¡ Chapter 2, sections 2.1 and 2.2, esp Table 2.1 ¡ Chapter 3, all sections 3.1- 3.8 ¡ Chapter 16, sections 16.1, 16.3 1. Multiple scales of energy Energy Energy E ( in BTU, joules(J) or cal) ( in BTU, joules(J) or cal) Power Power P = dE/dt dE/dt ( BTU/hr, Watts(W)) ( BTU/hr, Watts(W)) thermal thermal – t or t or th th or electric or electric - e ¡ macro level – global scale E = 1 to 1000 quad = 10 15 BTU ≈ 1 exajoule = 10 18 J ( today’s global energy consumption = 400 quads/year ≈ 15 TW) ¡ meso level – process or central station power plant level E = 10000 to 1 million BTU or 1,000 kJ to 100,000 kJ P = 100 KW t or e to 1000 MW t or e ¡ micro level – eg. individual buildings or vehicles E = 1 – 10000 BTU to 1000 J to 10 kJ P = 1 Watt ( W) to 100 kW Energy rate scaling ¡ food ----------------------------------- 250 kcal/candy bar ¡ average daily requirement ---------- 2000-3000 kcal/day = 100 W ¡ human heart -------------------------------- 2 W ¡ running ---------------------------------------- 500 W ¡ 1 horsepower ---------------------------------- 750 W ¡ 757 jet plane ---------------------------------- 1 – 10 MW ¡ automobile ------------------------------------ 100 -160kW ¡ space shuttle ----------------------------------- 1 GW ¡ Typical electric generating plant ---------- 1000 MW ¡ 1 wind turbine ---------------------------------- 1-3 MW ¡ laptop computer ----------------------------- 10 W ¡ cell phone ------------------------------------- 2 W US energy consumption per year ----------- 100 quads or Q=100,000,000,000,000,000,000 J or 3.5 TW Worldwide energy consumption per year ------ 400 quads or Q =400,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 J or 15 TW 2. Energy sources and properties ¡ Potential ¡ Kinetic ¡ Gravitational ¡ Elastic strain ¡ Thermal sensible heat latent heat ¡ Chemical stored in chemical bonds ¡ Electrochemical ¡ Electrostatic ¡ Electromagnetic ¡ Nuclear fission and fusion Energy conversion ¡ Laws of Thermodynamics provide limits ¡ Heat and work are not the same...
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0303se05toolbox5 - Energy Transfer Conversion and Storage...

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