0331s05bioenergy - Biomass Energy What is biomass Chemical...

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Biomass Energy What is biomass? Chemical and physical properties Biomass and energy – thermal conversion to heat and electricity or syngas and hydrolysis/bioprocesses to liquid and gaseous fuels Biomass resources and production Biomass to electricity Biomass to biofuels and hydrogen – Grain versus residual lignin-cellulosic feed stocks – Gasification, hydrolysis, bioconversion processes Biorefineries employing modern biotechnology
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Acknowledgements William Peters Jack Howard Michael Raab Jeremy Johnson Morgan Froling Richard Truly, Stan Bull and NREL staff Terry Adams and Brian Appel of CWT Plus many others
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Biomass Attributes Renewable Connected to farming - economics Multiuse – food, shelter, energy, materials Environmental concerns include land and water use, fertilizer and other nutrient requirements Naturally diffuse and distributed – harvesting and transport and distribution are important Photosynthesis CO 2 Conversion Useful Energy CO 2
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Molecular Plant Composition O OH OH O CH 2 OH OH OH O O CH 2 OH CH 2 OH O OH OH OH O CH 2 OH O OH OH O O OH OH O O OH OH O O OH O CH 2 OH CH 2 OH
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Photosynthesis Biomass energy is a form of solar energy Solar energy is captured via photosynthesis as carbon dioxide is incorporated as fixed carbon during the growth stage of all biomass Average solar incidence is about 4000 W/m 2 /day Biomass capture efficiency is ~ 1% Thin film photovoltaic efficiency is ~ 10% light, chlorophyll nCO 2 + nH 2 O Æ (CH 2 O) n + O 2
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Lignocellulosic Properties • Macrostructure is polymorphous – Crystalline regions Amorphous regions • Heterogeneous – Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin • Properties characterized in terms of – Degree of polymerization, accessible surface area, lignin distribution
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Lignin The major noncarbohydrate, polyphenolic structural constituent of wood and other plant material that encrusts the cell walls and cements the cells together A highly polymeric substance, with a complex, cross-linked, highly aromatic structure of molecular weight about 10,000 derived principally from coniferyl alcohol (C10H12O3) by extensive condensation polymerization Higher heating value: HHV=9111 Btu/lb H 2 CO H CH 2 CH 3 O H 2 CO H CH 2 CH 2 OH H O 28 CH CH CH H 2 CO H H C O 26 H 3 C O CH O H 27 CH 3 OC H 3 16 6 CH O CH OC H 3 H 3 C O H C O C ar bo hydr at e O H 25 H 2 CO H H CO H OHC CH CH 2 O H H C O 15 CH 2 O H O C H 3 H 3 C O H C O HC 14 O H O CH H 3 C O O CH 2 O H H 3 C O O C H 3 O CH 24 5 7 H 2 CO H O 13 H C O H C CH 2 HC C H H 3 C O CH 2 OH HC O C H H CO H 4 H 2 C CH O C H H 2 CO H OH O H O CH OC H 3 H O H 2 C 23 HO CH H C O 8 OC H 3 CH O 3 CH O H 3 C O CH 2 O H 12 O CH H 3 C O H C O CH 17 CH H 2 C O CH O CH O H C CH CH 2 O H O CH O HO CH H 2 CO H 22 H 3 C O H 3 C O CH 2 O H 9 O CH H C O C H 3 2 H 2 CO H O H H 3 C O 10 H C O 18 C O H 2 CO H C O H 3 C O 21 O C H H C C H H C O C H 2 O C H 3 CH 2 OH H C O CH 2 H O 19 CH H C O H 3 C O H 2 CO H H CO H 1 11 20 H 3 C O H CO H O H OC H 3 HC OH O H H
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