0412se05ghoniem1 - FOSSIL FUELS ENERGY AND THEIR...

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FOSSIL FUELS’ ENERGY AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Ahmed F. Ghoniem Department of Mechanical Engineering April 12, 2005 1
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FOSSIL FUELS : We love to hate … • The Big Picture, Revisited, why do we care? • Types, amounts, how long and what are the trends? • Combustion and reforming, why some chemistry headache? • Combustion phenomena, where do they fit? • Burners and Combustors, some hardware? • Power Cycles, conventional and advanced, what are the trends? • Emissions and their control, successes or failures? • Fuel Cell; what do they have to do with fossil? • Biomass, what is the connection? 2
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THE GLOBAL PICTURE 3
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The ENERGY REVOLUTION (The Terawatt Challenge) 12 Terawatts World wide The Terawatt Challenge (3.3 TW in US) R. Smalley* ~ 80% fossil, ~ 90% with biomass Rice University 50 45 40 1. ENERGY 35 2. WATER 30 3. FOOD 25 4. ENVIRONMENT 20 15 5. POVERTY 10 6. TERRORISM & WAR 5 7. DISEASE 0 8. EDUCATION 9. DEMOCRACY 10. POPULATION 0.5% 2003 m a ic n al Oi l Ga s s o ectr om er Co si th Fi roe l Bi nd, ge d Hy , w i lar Source: Internatinal Energy Agency S 4
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-- -- -- Energy Sources and Demand Source: M.I. Hoffert et. al., Nature , 1998 , 395 , 881 Graph removed for copyright reasons. Wigley, Richels and Edmonds, ppmv of CO2, pre-industrial concentration is 280 ppmv 5
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CO2 emissions and Global Temperature! From “Basic Research Need for a Hydrogen Economy”, Report of DOE BES Workshop, May 13-15, 2003 Predictions are always wrong! But it is good to have a plan … 6
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THE DOMESTIC PICTURE 7
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9 Total 98.2x10 15 BTU= 103.6x10 18 J Geo 0.314 Wind 0.106 Solar 0.063 12 20 Domestic production
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87-89% fossil based …… Annual Energy Outlook 2003, Energy Information Agency, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, DOE 11
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