0412se05ghoniem2 - EMISSION CONTROL IN COMBUSTON PROCESSES...

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EMISSION CONTROL IN COMBUSTON PROCESSES A great success story .. 57
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What about NOx emissions: Are we done yet? In California’s standard for BACT: NOx from GT is limited to 5 ppmvd for simple cycle and 2.5 in combined cycle. Mass DEP’s is 2 ppmvd for CC and CoGen. CO may become more challenging … 58 NO x (at 15% O 2 ) Country CO (at 15% O 2 ) Rate Power France 40 vppm 80 vppm > 20 MWth Italy 29 vppm 48 vppm > 50 MWth ECC 25 vppm Not stated > 50 MWth United Kingdom 28 vppm 80 vppm > 50 MWth Japan (Tokyo) 28 vppm No limits Not stated USA (California) 9 ppm Not stated Not stated E M I S S I O N L I M I T S F O R G R O U N D B A S E D G A S T U R B I N E S Figure by MIT OCW.
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NOx Reduction Technologies Steam/water injection: lowers T and NO, but may increases CO. Flue gas recirculation: lower power density. Flameless Combustion. Staged Burning: successful especially for high fuel bound N. DLN combustors: suffers from instability especially at part load. Actively controlled combustors: Complex technology. Catalytic combustion: …... Under consideration 59
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NOx Control Technologies Combustion Modification Excess air Staged combustion Temperature reduction Low NOx Burners Flue Gas Recirculation Water injection Oxyfuel combustion Reburn Post Combustion Control Selective Non catalytic Selective catalytic Staged fuel Staged air Ammonia injection Urea injection Methanol injection 60
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Under lean conditions and at low temperature, CO can become an issue: Graph removed for copyright reasons. Figure 7 in Docquier, N., and S. Candel.
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