intro - FUNDAMENTALS OF ADVANCED ENERGY CONVERSION 2.996...

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FUNDAMENTALS OF ADVANCED ENERGY CONVERSION 2.996 & 2.994, Spring 04 A Ghoniem (IC), M Kazimi, Y Shao-Horn, J Tester WHY ? CO2, Terawatts, Needs and Sources, WHAT ? Few Examples: IGCC, fuel reforming and synthesis Fuel Cells, “fueling the fuel cell”, FC3 Hydrogen Economy : generation and storage Photoelectricity HOW ?
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Solar, w Source: Internatinal Energy Agency 30 35 40 45 50 0.5% 2003 The ENERGY REVOLUTION (The Terawatt Challenge) 14 Terawatts (4 TW in US) The Terawatt Challenge R. Smalley* Rice University 25 20 15 10 5 0 1. ENERGY 2. WATER 3. FOOD c n ss ma al ri er o Gas Oil t issio a C c e m h ot oel o F ge Bi 4. ENVIRONMENT 50 5. POVERTY 45 6. TERRORISM & WAR 40 35 7. DISEASE 30 8. EDUCATION 25 9. DEMOCRACY 20 15 10. POPULATION 10 5 0 dr d, Hy n i 2050 30 -- 60 Terawatts Carbon free sources to stabilize CO2 ma on ic as r al ss Oil ct Co G si ma her is *Noble prize, Chemistry, 1996 e o F el ot Bi o on / nd, ge ydr si H u F wi ar, ource: International Energy Agency
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-- -- -- Energy Sources and Demand TW 50 40 30 20 10 0 Should be CO2 free CO2 free To limit CO2 to 450 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 YEAR Source: M.I. Hoffert et. al., Nature , 1998 , 395 , 881, Wigley, Richels and Edmonds, ppmv of CO2, pre-industrial concentration is 350 ppmv
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CO2 emissions and Global Temperature! From “Basic Research Need for a Hydrogen Economy”, Report of DOE BES Workshop, May 13-15, 2003 CO2 emission reduction: • Improve plant efficiency • Use low C fuels • Use pure H2 • Sequester CO2!
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