lec03_02142007_w - 10.37 Chemical and Biological Reaction...

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10.37 Chemical and Biological Reaction Engineering, Spring 2007 Prof. K. Dane Wittrup Lecture 3: Kinetics of Cell Growth and Enzymes This lecture covers: cell growth kinetics, substrate uptake and product formation in microbial growth, enzyme kinetics, and the Michaelis-Menten rate form. Biological Rate Laws- Enzymes and Cell Growth Rate Law: −= rf AA ( C , C B , C P , T , p H ,...) Why would you need a rate law? -Predictive description of a production process -Design tool for forming a desired product -Consistency or inconsistency with alternative mechanism For a hypothesized mechanism, we can often derive an exact, closed form analytical solution. If not, it’s used to approximate: -some reactions go rapidly to equilibrium -the concentrations of some species rapidly reach their steady state values -the rate-limiting step Or, as a last resort- numerical solution X X X X X C A -r A X=first order A A rk C = =second order 2 A A C =zero order A = Figure 1. Rate versus concentration graphs for zero, first, and second order reactions. Enzymes-Biological Catalysts S=Substrate E=Enzyme Cite as: K. Dane Wittrup, course materials for 10.37 Chemical and Biological Reaction Engineering, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
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Reaction Progress Energy S P Activation energy decreases with E (enzyme) Figure 2. An energy diagram for a reaction with and without an enzyme. The activation energy is lower with an enzyme, so the reaction proceeds faster.
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lec03_02142007_w - 10.37 Chemical and Biological Reaction...

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