ps2_fossil_fuels - 10.393J Spring 2007 Problem Set Module 2...

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10.393J Spring 2007 Problem Set Module 2 Fossil Fuels and Carbon Management Due March 8, 2007 1. Circa 2004 EIA estimates of the total U.S. coal resource and proven reserves are 1.7 trillion and 271 billion short tons, respectively. While estimates of proven reserves are likely to increase over time, as economic incentives and advanced technologies develop, limitations are imposed by factors such as poor quality (high impurity levels), storage at depths of several miles or more below the Earth’s surface, and/or storage beneath developed land. A plausible estimate of recoverable reserves is 150% of current proven reserves, or 406.5 billion short tons (BST). (a) Year-2004 coal production in the U.S. was approximately 1.11 BST. What was the corresponding reserve-to-production ratio for proven reserves of 271 BST? For the estimated recoverable reserves of 406.5 BST? (b) Assuming a 1.5% annual growth in demand from a year-2004 value of 1.11 BST, determine projected demand for the years 2020, 2050, 2100 and 2200. (c) Using an ultimate recoverable resource Q of 476.2 BST (the amount of coal used through 2005, 69.7 BST, plus an estimated recoverable reserve of 406.5 BST) and fitting historic coal production data with a Gaussian distribution, values of the standard deviation σ and year of peak production t m were found to be 93 years and 2107, respectively. Determine the corresponding estimates of production for the years 2020, 2050, 2100 and 2200. Relative to projected demand, what is the excess production capacity, or under capacity, for the designated years? What fraction of the ultimate recoverable resource will be produced by the years 2020, 2050, 2100 and 2200? (d) Briefly comment on factors that will influence future demand for coal. Is an annual growth estimate of 1.5% too high or low? 2. Nominal higher heating values, mass densities and carbon intensities are tabulated for gasoline, No. 2 diesel, ethanol and liquid hydrogen. Fuel HHV [kJ/kg] ρ [kg/m 3 ] CI [kg-C/GJ] Gasoline 44,000 750 18.5 No. 2 Diesel 45,400 850 18.5 Ethanol 29,700 796 17.4 Hydrogen 134,200 71 0.0 (a) For each fuel, determine the volumetric energy density (MJ/gal) and CO 2 production due to combustion (kg-CO 2 /gal). Cite as: Frank Incropera, course materials for 10.391J/1.818J/2.65J/11.371J/22.811J/ESD.166J Sustainable Energy, IAP 2007 to Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
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(b) Assuming a pump price of $3 per gallon for gasoline, diesel and ethanol, comment on the economic value of each fuel. (c) If the average fuel efficiency of a flex-fuel vehicle is 30 miles per gallon of gasoline, what is the vehicle’s efficiency when using E85 (a volumetric blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline)?
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ps2_fossil_fuels - 10.393J Spring 2007 Problem Set Module 2...

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