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lecture1 - 10.492 Integrated Chemical Engineering(ICE...

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10.492 - Integrated Chemical Engineering (ICE) Topics: Biocatalysis MIT Chemical Engineering Department Instructor: Professor Kristala Prather Fall 2004 Lecture #1 – Course Overview, Enzyme Classification System Handouts: (1) Course syllabus, (2) Rozzell (1999) Bioorg. Med. Chem. 7:2253-2261, (3) History of biocatalysis/industrial biotransformations tables, (4) Enzyme Nomenclature, (5) Examples of EC Classes 1. Review Syllabus/Course Requirements 2. Survey class to determine the range of biology background, especially molecular biology. 3. Definitions and course objectives Defining biocatalysis – Catalyst – A substance, usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants, that modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the process. Biocatalyst – A catalyst of biological origin an Enzyme Broadly speaking, biocatalysis then encompasses any enzymatically-catalyzed reaction, whether the enzyme has been purified or is part of a whole (microbial) cell, since the “working” parts of cells are enzymes. This can include, for example, Fermentation of yeast to convert sugars to ethanol for production of alcoholic beverages Growth of filamentous fungi to produce antibiotics Cheese production – uses a variety of microorganisms to convert milk to cheese Baker’s yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) to convert sugars to CO 2 to make leavened bread Others from the class? All of these involve multi-step pathways for converting one or more substrates into one or more products, including biomass, energy (through re-dox reactions) and waste (CO 2 ). We will focus much more narrowly, and follow a working definition of biocatalysis as the use of an enzymatically-catalyzed reaction to convert a single starting compound to a single product, without consumption of the substrate for production of biomass, energy, or waste. Refer to Handout on industrial biotransformations for examples of large scale biocatalysis. Dr. Kristala L. Jones Prather, Copyright 2004. MIT Department of Chemical Engineering
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Lecture #1, p. 2 Note that this narrow definition puts “biocatalysists” in direct conflict with synthetic chemists. So, we may have as a corollary, that “Biocatalysists” are
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