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03 - Chemistry 5.12 Lecture#3 Outline III Review of...

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1 Chemistry 5.12, Lecture #3, 2/10/03 Outline III. Review of Molecular Orbital Theory ( Read Chapter 2 ) A. Atomic Orbitals ( 2-1 ) B. Sigma-Bonding ( 2-2A ) C. Pi-Bonding ( 2-2B ) D. VSEPR Theory ( 2-4 ) IV. Hybridization/LCAO A. sp Hybridization ( 2-4A ) B. sp 2 Hybridization ( 2-4B ) C. sp 3 Hybridization ( 2-4C ) 1. Rotation of Ethane versus Ethylene ( 2-3,7,8 ) Problem Set #1 Due Today by 4pm Problem Set #2 Posted : Due Tuesday (2/18/03) Suggested Problems: 2-28,29,31,33 * Read 2-12,13: Survey of Organic Molecules Electrons Are Waves! They Exist as 3-D Standing Waves (Orbitals). a t o m i c o r b i t a l s: unhybridized orbitals on an atom ( s , p , d ) L i n e a r C o m b i n a t i o n o f A t o m i c O r b i t a l s ( L C A O ): Individual wave functions (orbitals) combine to form hybrid atomic orbitals ( sp , sp 2 , sp 3 ) and molecular orbitals ( σ , σ *, π , π *) H y b r i d A t o m i c O r b i t a l: Combination of atomic orbitals from the same atom M o l e c u l a r O r b i t a l: Combination of atomic orbitals from different atoms C o n s e r v a t i o n o f O r b i t a l s: When you add orbitals together, you always end up with the same number of orbitals that you started with. III. Molecular Orbital Theory
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2 A. Atomic Orbitals The s- and p -orbitals are the most important in organic compounds. Orbital pictures are actually electron probability clouds. x y z x y z x y z x y z s p X p Y p Z s - o r b i t a l s: spherical, electrons held close to nucleus, one sign p - o r b i t a l s: two lobes with opposite signs, electrons further from nucleus Remember, the sign of the orbital does not indicate charge.
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