05_lec_5_2006 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

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5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Organic Chemistry 5.13 September 15, 2006 Prof. Timothy F. Jamison Notes for Lecture #5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Isotope Natural Abundance Spin Isotope Natural Abundance Spin 1 H 99.98% 1/2 14 N 99.6% 1 12 C 98.9% 0 16 O 99.8% 0 13 C 1.1% 1/2 31 P >99.9% 1/2 13 C NMR is useful for: 1. Determining the number of chemically non-equivalent (or “different types of”) carbon atoms in a molecule, based on the number of peaks in the spectrum. (See substitution test , below.) 2. Identifying the types of functional groups in a molecule based on the chemical shift of each peak. In contrast to IR spectroscopy, the number of each type of functional group (e.g. 2 chemically non-equivalent ketones) often can be determined. 1 H NMR is useful for: 1. Determining the number of chemically non-equivalent (or “different types of”) hydrogen atoms in a molecule, based on the number of peaks in the spectrum. Note: “number of peaks” in this case does not include the splitting pattern (see below), e.g. a
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05_lec_5_2006 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

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