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MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms .
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_______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 5.111 Lecture Summary #16 Readings for today: : Sections 6.13, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, and 6.20 (Sections 6.14, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, and 6.21 in 3 rd ed ) – The Enthalpy of Chemical Change. Read for Lecture #17: Section 7.1 – Spontaneous Change, Sections 7.2 and 7.8 - Entropy, Sections 7.12, 7.13, + 7.15 – Free Energy. (Section numbers are the same for the 3 rd and the 4 th ed .) Topics: I. Valence bond theory and hybridization (continued from Lecture #15) Determining hybridization in complex molecules II. Energies and enthalpies of chemical reactions A. Bond energy/ bond enthalpy B. Heat of formation I. VALENCE BOND THEORY AND HYBRIDIZATION (continued from Lecture #15) DETERMINING HYBIDIZATION IN COMPLEX MOLECULES To determine the hybridization of a given atom in a molecule, (# of bonded atoms) + (# of lone pairs) = # of hybrid orbitals 2 hybrid orbitals- _____ , 3 hybrid orbitals - _____ , 4 hybrid orbitals- sp 3 Exception: single-bonded, _______________ atoms. For the purposes of this course, do NOT hybridize single, bonded, terminal atoms. C-H: (C2sp 2 , H1s) C-O: (C2sp 2 , O ) C C-Cl: (C2sp 2 , Cl ) (C2p y , O ) H Cl O Example: ascorbic acid (vitamin C)± HO CH 2 a
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