01_562ln08

01_562ln08 - MIT OpenCourseWare http/ocw.mit.edu 5.62...

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MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.62 Physical Chemistry II Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms .
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Lecture 1: Assemblies Ensembles, the Ergodic Hypothesis TOPICS COVERED This is a course in building microscopic models for macroscopic phenomena. Most of first half involves idealized systems, where inter- particle interactions can be ignored and where individual particles are adequately described by simple energy level formulas (from Quantum Mechanics 5.61 or Classical Mechanics). The second half deals with non- ideality, interacting atoms, as in solids and, in gas phase collisions and chemical reactions. I. Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics (J. W. Gibbs) microscopic basis for macroscopic properties Equilibrium Thermodynamics: 5.60 Quantum mechanics: 5.61 U, H, A, G, S, µ, p, V, T, C V , C p translation particle in a box (nothing microscopic needed) nuclear spin ideal gas, ideal solution rotation phase transitions vibration chemical equilibrium electronic electrons, atoms, molecules, Non-equilibrium photons Chemical kinetics, Arrhenius permutation symmetry Transport spectroscopy Classical Mechanics: 8.01 Newton’s Laws Kinematics, Phase space Statistical Mechanics: 5.62 (BULK) macro from micro (single molecule properties) idealized micro (no inter-particle interactions) idealized interactions (tricks to build model) models for solids: heat capacity, electrical conductivity Kinetic Theory of Gases (Collision Theory) transport (mass, energy, momentum) Transition State Theory
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5.62 Spring 2008 Lecture 1, Page 2 II. Solid-State Chemistry models for solids prediction of macroscopic properties from microscopic interactions III. Kinetics Models • Kinetic Theory of Gases (Boltzmann) •bulk properties obtained from averages over speed distributions •less powerful than stat. mech., but simpler to apply in everday circumstances •transport properties — relaxation to equilibrium IV. Theories of Reaction Rates bridge between microscopic properties and macroscopic reaction rate: result of many microscopic collisions Collision Theory — based on kinetic theory — fraction of collisions that are effective in causing reaction
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01_562ln08 - MIT OpenCourseWare http/ocw.mit.edu 5.62...

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