5_60_lecture18

5_60_lecture18 - MIT OpenCourseWare http:/ocw.mit.edu 5.60...

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MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.60 Thermodynamics & Kinetics Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms .
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5.60 Spring 2008 Lecture #18 page 1 Phase Equilibria in a 1-Component System Goal: Understand the general phenomenology of phase transitions and phase coexistence conditions for a single component system. The Chemical Potential μ controls phase transitions and phase equilibria. Equilibrium condition – at equilibrium μ must be identical throughout the system When multiple phases are present in equilibrium, must be the same in all phases For example, consider two phases (liquid and solid) of water at a fixed (T, p). If μ s (T, p) = μ (T, p) then… liquid water and ice coexist If μ s (T, p) > μ (T, p) then… the water is in the liquid phase If μ s (T, p) < μ (T, p) then… the water is in the solid phase How does depend on T? Start with Fundamental Equation for Gibbs (hence for ) dG =− SdT + Vdp d =− + Vdp = G n S and V are molar quantities ⎛ ∂ =− = ⎝ ∂ T p
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5.60 Spring 2008 Lecture #18 page 2 3 rd Law tells us that S > 0 μ < 0 ⎝ ∂ T p n e g a t i v e T μ S gas > S > S solid , and μ gas μ liq μ solid S gas , S liq , =−
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course CHEM 5.43 taught by Professor Timothyf.jamison during the Spring '07 term at MIT.

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5_60_lecture18 - MIT OpenCourseWare http:/ocw.mit.edu 5.60...

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