Intro to Statistics for MTH 1000

# Intro to Statistics for MTH 1000 - INTRODUCTION TO...

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INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Jan 25’09 [1] BIOSTATISTICS. A foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences, eights edition, by Wayne W. Daniel; John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 0-471-45654-3 WIE ISBN: 0-471-45232-7 [2] “Elementary Statistics” by Robert Johnson, 3 rd ed. [3] 1000 Muller/Heeren/Hornsby MATHEMATICAL IDEAS 11th Expanded Ed., Addison-Wesley 0-321-36146-6. Statistics is a science that deals with collection, organization, summarization, interpretation, and presentation of related pieces of numerical information called data . We may also treat statistics as the science of learning from data . The field of statistics can be roughly subdivided into two areas: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics . Descriptive statistics deals with procedures that used to organize, summarize, and present data in a convenient, useable, and communicable form. Inferential statistics allows us to obtain broader generalizations or inferences from the data. The data is defined as a set of numbers (or verbal characteristics) collected as a result of statistical activity (which may include counting, and/or also observations, measurements, experiments, questioning, etc.) These numbers contain information about the objects on which they have been collected, and the purpose of statistics is to investigate and evaluate the nature and meaning of this information. Careful use of statistical methods enables us to (1) accurately describe the findings of statistical activity (scientific research); (2) make inferences and estimations about a total body of data based on observations from part of the total , and make a statement about the chance that our inferences and estimations are true ( the theory of probability provides the foundation for statistical inference ); (3) make decisions on the basis of the inferences and estimations. Probability and statistics are two separate but related fields of mathematics . Statistics allows scientists to discover hidden dependencies and correlation (correspondence, relation) between the events and phenomena that may seem independent for the first sight. The tools and concepts of statistics are universal , and they are widely used in many fields, for example, in biological sciences and medicine, in business & economics (Dow- Johns and Nasdaq indices, rate of inflation…), agriculture, education, physical sciences, engineering, psychology, linguistics, etc. Statistics is essential for the proper work of government, and it is central to decision making in industry.

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