RealWorldFructoseLevels - articles nature publishing group...

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OBESITY 1 nature publishing group ARTICLES METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION Sugar-sweetened beverages have been shown to contribute to weight gain in both adults and youth (1–5) and are associated with chronic health consequences including risk for obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and fatty liver disease (6–10). Per capita caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages went from 50 calories in 1965 to over 200 calories in 2002 (11). SoF drinks in the United States, as well as some other popular sugar-sweetened beverages, are sweetened primarily with high fructose corn syrup (H±CS), and it is estimated that Americans ≥ age 2 years ingest at least 132 calories per day from H±CS (5). Te consumption of total fructose increased by nearly 30% between 1970 and 2000, largely due to the increased use of H±CS (5). Even when beverages are not sweetened with H±CS and instead contain cane sugar or crystalline fructose, which are oFen viewed by the public as healthier, more natural alter- natives, the overall total sugar content and the fructose content of the beverages are still high and still of concern. In addition to the concerns over the increased caloric intake from increased sugar consumption, there is also an additive metabolic risk associated with high consumption of fructose in particular (12).Te consumption of high amounts of fructose has been found to be particularly associated with negative health out- comes (13) such as insulin resistance, triglyceride deposition in the liver (14), and kidney stones (15–18). High fructose corn syrup can be produced in different for- mulations, and according to the Corn Refiners Association, H±CS is “either 42 percent or 55 percent fructose” (19) com- bined with the remaining percentage of glucose, although H±CS with higher fructose content can be produced (20,21). Although food labels are required to provide total grams of sugar in a beverage, complete information regarding sugar composition, i.e., fructose vs. glucose, is not required and not disclosed on the label. Even when the ingredient list specifies “high fructose corn syrup,” the actual fructose content of the syrup is not known, as beverage manufacturers do not specify which formulation of H±CS they use. However, there may be a preference for the use of higher percentages of fructose consid- ering that fructose tastes sweeter than glucose. Due to the lack of knowledge of actual fructose content in foods, researchers conducting detailed dietary analyses examining fructose con- sumption rely on approximations and assumptions of the Sugar Content of Popular Sweetened Beverages Based on Objective Laboratory Analysis: Focus on Fructose Content Emily E. Ventura 1 , Jaimie N. Davis 1 and Michael I. Goran 1,2 The consumption of fructose, largely in the form of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), has risen over the past several decades and is thought to contribute negatively to metabolic health. However, the fructose content of foods
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RealWorldFructoseLevels - articles nature publishing group...

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