high+fructose+corn+syrup

high+fructose+corn+syrup - Crystal Thanos NPB 132 Craig...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Crystal Thanos NPB 132 Craig Warden 12/04/2009 High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Not the Only Bad Sugar An Examination of the Relationship between High-Fructose Corn Syrup and Obesity Introduction The incidence of obesity has been on the rise in America for the past 30 years. With the increase in the extremely overweight population comes the prevalence of other weight-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Figlewicz et al. 2009, Forshee et al. 2007). According to the CDC, an alarming 33% of adult Americans are currently obese (White 2009). In searching for an answer to this fast-spreading epidemic, scientists made the connection that three decades ago, when obesity was beginning to increase, the United States coincidentally had begun to shift its primary sweetener from sucrose to high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (Angelopoulos et al. 2009, Bray 2008).
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Thanos The parallel increases in obesity and HFCS consumption eventually transformed into a causal relationship in the minds of the general public. The media and even doctors have proclaimed and reinforced the belief that fructose and HFCS consumption cause obesity, and that we should avoid foods containing these sweeteners. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanism of sugar metabolism and to investigate the effects of different common sweeteners on body weight regulation to show that HFCS is not uniquely responsible for the obesity epidemic in America. Glucose vs. Fructose It is important to understand that the body has different mechanisms for metabolizing the two major monosaccharides we will be focusing on: glucose and fructose. Fructose is significantly sweeter than glucose. It is taken up by the liver, broken down, and gives rise to triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids via de novo lipogenesis (Angelopoulos et al. 2009). Glucose stimulates the secretion of insulin from β-cells in the pancreas, which in turn promotes the usage of glucose for energy, or its storage as glycogen in the liver or as TG (Sherwood). Elevated blood glucose also results in elevated levels of leptin and decreased ghrelin secretion. Leptin and ghrelin are endocrine factors that regulate hunger and satiety. Ghrelin promotes the feeling of hunger, while leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, conversely induces satiety. Pure fructose has no effect on insulin and thus there is not a mechanism by which fructose can induce satiety like glucose can (Moran 2009).
Background image of page 2
Thanos What’s the Difference? Sucrose is the common form of sugar that we encounter daily. It is a disaccharide composed of 50% glucose and 50% fructose. HFCS is commonly misinterpreted to have disproportionately high amounts of fructose compared to sucrose, but it is “high in fructose” only relative to regular corn syrup. HFCS also contains the monosaccharides glucose and fructose, but it can be made in different ratios. HFCS-42 and HFCS-55 (42% and 55% fructose, respectively) are commonly produced and used to sweeten food, with HFCS-55 being the form typically found
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/24/2011 for the course NPB 97952 taught by Professor ? during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

Page1 / 16

high+fructose+corn+syrup - Crystal Thanos NPB 132 Craig...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online