Abdominal+Obesity - Sara Hawkey 12/4/2009 NPB 132 Abdominal...

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Sara Hawkey 12/4/2009 NPB 132 Abdominal Obesity Phenotype: The Effected Genes and How it Can be Changed Images of tweedle-dee and tweedle-dum come to mind when the picturing abdominal obesity. This apple shaped body type has killed many figures, particularly those of the abdominally obese. The media focuses on obtaining and ideal body type with advertisements bragging about their ability to “cut belly fat” or make your “tummy flatter in days”. Many people exercise and diet but nothing seems to work. Yet, there must be some science behind what phenotype holds weight in the abdomen and how it can be successfully reduced or healthfully managed, without bariatric surgical intervention or other forms of surgical intervention. The desire or need to lose weight for overweight or obese populations seems natural since the recent dogma insists that obesity is the major risk factor for common diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and various forms of cancer (Damncott et al, 2004). In particular, abdominal obesity is a strong predictor of future obesity-related metabolic and health disorders such as type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, stroke, even death (Schwartz et al, 1991). Weight loss is essential for reducing these health risks. Reviewing studies of the effects of exercise on intra-abdominal fat successful weight loss results seem inconclusive and highly dependent upon obesity phenotype and genetics. Will Exercise Really Reduce Abdominal Adiposity? In a randomized, controlled trial in Ontario, Canada men with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 27 kg/cm 2 and waist greater than 100cm were recruited to take part in 1
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a 20 week diet and exercise clinical trail. There were four different groups into which the men were randomly placed: control, diet-induced weight loss, exercise-induced weight loss, and exercise without weight loss (Ross et al, 2000). “All participants followed a weight maintenance diet (55% to 60% carbohydrate, 15% to 20% protein, and 20% to 25% fat) for a 4- to 5-week baseline period” (Ross et al, 2000). After weight stabilization, the diet induced weight loss group decreased their energy intake by 700 kcal/day; the exercise-induced weight loss group began to exercise (700 kcal/day expenditure), and the exercise without weight loss ate a diet to maintain weight and exercised with a negative energy expenditure of 700kcal per day. The study diet compositions were the same as the weight stabilization period. Energy expenditure, cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood pressure, and insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were measured pre and post treatment. According to this study, “participants in the exercise-induced weight loss group showed a greater improvement than those assigned to exercise without weight loss ( P = 0.01)” (Ross et al, 2000). In addition, reduction in visceral adiposity was associated with “significant correlation coefficients obtained between corresponding changes in visceral
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Abdominal+Obesity - Sara Hawkey 12/4/2009 NPB 132 Abdominal...

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