L7_NPB_101

L7_NPB_101 - Lecture 7 •  SmartSite: –  Lecture...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 7 •  SmartSite: –  Lecture 7 Notes •  Announcements: –  None •  Organiza;on of the Nervous System •  Introduc;on to Sensory Systems •  Reading (Recommended): –  Reading: Relevant por;ons of Chapters 5 & 6 1 Organiza;on of the Nervous System 2 The Brain: Central Nervous System (CNS) & (some) Cor;cal Func;ons TOP (DORSAL) Motor Sensory Personality FRONT (ROSTRAL) BACK (CAUDAL) Vision Speech Hearing EmoEon LocomoEon Autonomic RegulaEon Fig. 5 ­8, pg. 146 (See also Fig. 5 ­9a, pg. 147) BOTTOM (VENTRAL) 3 Func;ons of the Nervous System •  Input (Afferent) –  Transduce informa;on (convert s;muli into electrical signal) •  Integra;on –  Communica;on (transfer informa;on) –  Processing and integra;on of signals •  Output (Efferent) –  Genera;on of responses and control of ac;vi;es •  Homeosta;c Regula;on •  Higher cogni;ve func;on •  Motor control 4 Nervous System Organiza;on •  2 Cell types – Neurons (func;onal; 1012) & Glia (support) •  2 Primary divisions –  Central nervous system (CNS) •  Consists of brain and spinal cord –  Peripheral nervous system (PNS) •  Afferent division (Input) –  Carries informa;on to the CNS •  Efferent division (Output) –  Carries informa;on away from CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands) –  Divided into »  Soma;c nervous system »  Autonomic nervous system 5 Nervous System Organiza;on OUTPUT (Efferent) INPUT (Afferent) Fig. 5 ­1, pg. 134 6 The CNS (Midline Sagi^al View) Table 5 ­2, pg. 144 (see also Fig. 5 ­15, pg. 155) 7 The Brain (Coronal View) Fig. 5 ­14a, pg. 154 8 Humans Have 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves Fig. 5 ­25, pg. 173 9 Organiza;on of Spinal Nerves Fig. 5 ­26, pg. 174 10 Transverse Sec;on of the Spinal Cord Gray MaJer TOP (DORSAL) White MaJer INPUT OUTPUT BOTTOM (VENTRAL) Fig. 5 ­29, pg. 176 11 Introduc;on to Sensory Systems “Nothing is in the mind that does not pass through the senses” Aristotle "Sensa'on is an abstrac'on, not a replica'on of the real world” Vernon Mountcastle 12 Percep;on •  Conscious interpreta;on of external world derived from sensory input •  Sensory input does not give true reality percep;on. Why? –  Humans have receptors that detect only a limited number of exis;ng energy forms •  We don’t perceive or encode everything –  Informa;on channels in our brains are not high ­ fidelity recorders •  Can’t transduce all levels of energy •  TransducEon in not linear (1:1) –  Cerebral cortex further manipulates the data 13 Sensa;on is an Abstrac;on of Reality Response Threshold SaturaEon SEmulus 14 CNS Manipula;on: What You Perceive? Fig. 6 ­8 & 6 ­9, pg. 191 15 Func;onal Classes of Neurons •  Afferent neurons (Receptors; Input) –  Inform CNS about condi;ons in both the external and internal environment INPUT •  Interneurons (99% of neurons; Processing) –  Found en;rely within CNS –  Responsible for •  Integra;ng afferent informa;on and formula;ng an efferent response •  Higher mental func;ons associated with the “mind” •  Efferent neurons (Output) –  Carry instruc;ons from CNS to effector organs – muscles and glands OUTPUT Fig. 5 ­2, pg. 135 (see also Fig. 6 ­2, pg. 185) 16 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/24/2011 for the course NPB 97952 taught by Professor ? during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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