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are150-5review-questions-5-answers

are150-5review-questions-5-answers - University of...

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University of California, Davis Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics ARE 150 Fall 2010 Philip Martin Dist 11/29/10 [email protected] Due 12/2/10 Review Questions 5: Early Final, Monday, December 6 from 1-3pm, Room 205 Olson Regular Final, Friday, December 10 from 8-10am, 146 Olson Please type or write neatly, and put your discussion section, 4-5 or 5-6, on your answers, which can be answered from lectures, Handout 6, the Martin- Midgley reading on the ARE 150 web page 1. The US had three major types (phases) of immigration policies (Martin- Midgley p12): Laissez-Faire or facilitating immigration until the 1880s by e.g. giving away land to those who built infrastructure such as railroads, and allowing practically all foreigners to immigrate, including those who could not pay one-way transportation to the US, many of whom became indentured servants who signed contracts before boarding the ship promising to work for whoever paid the captain for 3-6 years; qualitative restrictions in the 1880s that prohibited the entry of particular groups, such as Chinese, prostitutes etc; quantitative restrictions since the 1920s, limiting the number as well as the type of immigrants who could arrive each year. The current immigration system gives priority for immigrant visas or green cards to foreigners with US relatives: - Almost 70% of the immigrants admitted each year have relatives in the US who “sponsor” immediate and more distant family relations for immigrant visas. - About 15% of immigrants are workers (and their families) requested by US employers to fill vacant jobs for which they cannot find US workers-- employers sponsor immigrants for the foreigners they want to fill particular jobs. - About 10% are refugees resettled in the US and asylum seekers who arrived in the US and ask to stay because they face persecution at home - About 5% win immigrants visas in the diversity lottery and other immigrants US born adults, when arrayed by the best single predictor of earnings, years of education, have a diamond shape, with a bulge in the middle representing those who have a high school diploma but not a college degree. Immigrants, on the other hand, have more of a barbell or hourglass shape, reflecting the high shares with at least a college degree and less than a high-school diploma. 2. (Martin-Midgley p8-9): The first wave of immigrants arrived before the US began to record immigration in 1820. Most first-wave immigrants (60%) were from the UK, explaining why the area that became the US speaks English and
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relies on English common law. The motivations of these first immigrants included a search for religious and political freedom and economic opportunity. The s econd wave between 1820 and 1860 included German, British, and Irish (40%). Roman Catholics predominated, and Catholicism became the largest US religious denomination by 1850. Protestant Know-Nothings tried to halt Catholic immigration—they did not, but the Civil War did.
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