Lecture10 - Lecture 11 & 12: Animal Development Chapter...

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Animal Development Chapter 21 & 47
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cell division - mitotic division of cells cell differentiation - the structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a mulitcellular organism’s development morphogenesis - the development of body shape and organization
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differentiated nuclei could direct the development of zygote to adult frog less differentiated nuclei are more potent than greater or fully differentiated nuclei in directing normal development Nuclear transplantation experiments - frog
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Nuclei from partially dedifferentiated mammary cells transplanted into enucleated egg was sufficient to drive development birth of Dolly - nuclear DNA identical to mammary cell donor, mitchondrial DNA identical to egg donor Dolly was euthanized at age 6 due to respiratory complications mainly due to a virus that commonly effects Nuclear transplantation experiments - sheep
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Nuclear transplantation experiments work - genome from all cells are identical and can drive development But frog cell age changes potency and Dolly died early!!! immune system development eye development lung development liver genes H Histones package DNA and can keep genes in a turned off state When introduced into egg, some of these important developmental genes may be packaged and unable to contribute properly to development H H
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Back on point. .. differential gene expression is what drives cellular differentiation - the tools in the shed (DNA) are all the same. Cells use different tools and use them differently to build different houses. Cell differentiation is preceded by determination - molecular changes in the cell irreversibly commit the cell to its final fate
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Cytoplasmic determinants - maternal substances in the egg that influence the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate cells
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Induction - the ability of one group of embryonic cells to influence the developmental fate of another
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Pattern formation - the ordering of cells into specific three-dimensional structures; essential in shaping organism and its individual parts during development mutation in pattern forming gene
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cytoplasmic determinants affect pattern formation
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Lecture10 - Lecture 11 & 12: Animal Development Chapter...

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