Metabolism_and_metabolic_diseases.2

Metabolism_and_metabolic_diseases.2 - Metabolism and...

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Unformatted text preview: Metabolism and metabolic Metabolism and metabolic diseases. diseases. Lecture structure: Lecture structure:-Definition of metabolism-Physiological meaning and biochemical pathways of protein metabolism. Regulation of protein metabolism. Protein metabolism disturbances.-Physiological meaning and biochemical pathways of carbohydrate metabolism. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Diabetes. Hyperinsulinism-Physiological meaning and biochemical pathways of lipid metabolism. Regulation of lipid metabolism. Obesity.-Role of liver in protein, carbohydrates and lipids metabolism.-Vitamins and minerals-General and basal metabolism. Regulation of basal metabolism. Thermodynamics and energy metabolism. Methods of energy metabolism study calorimetry. Rubners surface law.-Thermoregulation. Chemical and physical thermoregulation. Centers of thermoregulation. Guyton and Hall. Textbook of medical physiology. 10 th edition pp.771-832 Metabolism- main feature of living matter can be define as: Metabolism- main feature of living matter can be define as: biochemical processes that take place in living cells; synthesis, breakdown and renewal different chemical compounds Catabolism- break down Anabolism- synthesis form of organism connection with its environment conversion of potential chemical energy into kinetic (synthesis); mechanical (muscles activity); electric (membrane potentials maintenance), thermogenetic (body temperature maintenance) kinds of energy etc. respiration, digestion, excretion - physiological processes of whole organism metabolism Foods Foods renew energy expenditures; maintain body mass; provide grows and development; provide vitamins, minerals, salts and water Free energy- energy liberated by complete oxidation of a food , expressed in calories/1mole of substance (oxidation of 1 mole of glucose: 686,000 calories / 180 g) Nutrients:carbohydrates lipids and Protein Metabolism Protein Metabolism Proteins share is more then 50% of cell dry weight Protein functions:-Structural proteins-cell wall, etc. -Enzymes-Nucleoproteins, transport proteins (hemoglobin), protein pores-Protein that cause muscle contraction (Actin, Myosin)-Plastic function: synthesis and renewal structural parts of cell-Energy production by protein oxidation Basics: Basics: Amino acids are building blocks of proteins 20 different amino acids are present in body proteins 10 amino acids can be synthesized in body: glycine, alanine, serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, tyrosine, proline 10 amino acids can not be synthesized in sufficient quantity Essential amino acids: threonine, methionine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, arginine, phenilalanine, tryptophan, histidine....
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Metabolism_and_metabolic_diseases.2 - Metabolism and...

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