Carbohydrate Metabolism II

Carbohydrate Metabolism II - Carbohydrate Metabolism 2...

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Carbohydrate Metabolism 2 Reading: Gropper 4 th ed, Ch 4, pp. 87–94 Gropper 5 th ed, Ch 3, pp. 82–89
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2 Objectives for today: Learn energetics of: Glycolysis Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, TCA cycle) Discuss shuttling of electrons into mitochondria
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3 Fig. 4-13, p. 87 Regulation of glycogen phosphorylase (glycogenolysis) (activity by AMP, ATP) ( by glucagon, epinephrine) ( insulin)
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4
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5 Cellular Energy 101 Substrate Phosphorylation: Potential energy in phosphate anhydride bond acts as energy reservoir Hydrolysis of this bond liberates energy used in metabolism ATP/GTP: efficient intermediate carrier of energy Phosphocreatine: really high energy bond Energy used to break this bond must be replaced for the reverse reaction or the ‘remaking’ of the bond Oxidative Phosphorylation: Energy created from reduction/oxidation reactions can synthesize ATP NADH + /FADH 2 : electron carriers/donors O 2 : electron acceptor
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6 Glycolysis Facts 1 st step in breakdown of monosaccharides Universal pathway in many biological systems Anaerobic environment: produces minimal energy Aerobic environment: provides substrate for more energy All reactions occur in CYTOSOL All intermediates are phosphorylated Kinase: Transfers P from ATP to intermediate Mutase: Shift P around Isomerase: Alter placement of attached groups Dehydratase: Dehydrates or removes H 2 O Aldolase: Split C-C
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7 Glycolysis Facts Energetics of Glucose breakdown: 2 pyruvate molecules 2 ATP consumed 4 ATP produced Net yield per glucose molecule: 2 ATP + 2 NADH 2 ATP (brain, skeletal muscle) or 3 ATP (liver, kidney, heart) Net ATP production/glucose = 6–8 ATP
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8 Fig. 4-14, p. 88 Glycolysis
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9 Galactose Metabolism Galactose Galactose 1-P ATP ADP Galactokinas e UDP-Galactose Glucose 1-P UDP-Glucose Uridyl transferase Epimerase UDP-Glucose Glucose 6-P Phosphoglucomutase GLYCOLYSIS
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Fructose Metabolism in Liver 10 FRUCTOSE Fructokinase FRUCTOSE-1-P ATP ADP Aldolase B Glyceraldehyde + Dihydroxyacetone phosphate 2 GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-P +ATP Isomerase Glyceraldehyde Kinase GLYCOLYSIS
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11 Phases of Glycolysis Stage 1:
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