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Carbohydrate Metabolism III

Carbohydrate Metabolism III - Carbohydrate Metabolism 3...

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Carbohydrate Metabolism 3 Reading: Gropper 4 th ed, Ch 1, pp. 6–7; Ch 3, pp. 62–69; Ch 4, pp. 93–99 Gropper 5 th ed, Ch 1, pp. 6–8; Ch 3, pp. 88–100
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2 Objectives for today: Review the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation Overview of the “shuttle systems” Malate-aspartate shuttle Glycerol-3-P shuttle Hexosemonophosphate shunt (HMP shunt, pentose phosphate pathway, phosphogluconate pathway) Gluconeogenesis
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3
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4 Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome Plasma membrane Mitochondrion Polysome Stress fibers Microtrabecular strand Microtubule Fig. 1-8, p. 6
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5 Ribosome Cristae DNA Outer membrane Inner membrane Matrix space Respiratory stalks Fig. 1-9, p. 6
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6 Fatty acids Outer membrane Inner membrane CO 2 Pyruvate Fatty acids Acetyl CoA Krebs cycle NADH ADP + P ATP ATP P e H + H 2 O O 2 Fig. 1-10, p. 7 O 2 CO 2 H + H + Pyruvate ADP + Glycolysis
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7 Fig. 4-14, p. 88 Glycolysis
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8 NADH: The Shuttle Systems NADH produced in the cytosol in glycolysis cannot enter mitochondria directly NADH donates reducing equivalents (H + ) to a carrier (malate or glycerol-3-P) The carrier enters the mitochondrial matrix and is used to reduce NAD + to NADH The NADH produces 3 ATP by electron transport Two predominate shuttle systems are: Malate-Aspartate Shuttle Glycerol 3-Phosphate Shuttle
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9 Malate-Aspartate Shuttle Functions in liver, kidney, and heart In cytosol, NADH is used to convert oxaloacetate to malate Malate is freely permeable to inner mitochondrial membrane Malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate, generates NADH, H+
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