10:20 - Metabolic Response to Fasting:Starvation

10:20 - Metabolic Response to Fasting:Starvation -...

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Metabolic Response to Fasting and Starvation Reading: Gropper 4 th ed, Ch 8, pp. 230–243; Ch 7, pp. 226–228 Gropper 5 th ed, Ch 7, pp. 256–263; Ch 6, pp. 242, 246-248
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2 Objectives for today: Endocrine regulation of metabolism Metabolic effects of feeding, fasting, starvation, and malnutrition
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Endocrine system uses hormones for communication Endocrine system uses hormones for communication Hormones: Chemical substances secreted into bodily fluids that regulates activity of target cells Functions as a message within an organism in order to convey information 3 basic types: Steroid Hormones: Adrenal cortex (cortisol and aldosterone) Ovaries (estrogen and progesterone) Testes (testosterone) Placenta (estrogen and progesterone) Tyrosine derivatives Thyroid (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) Adrenal medulla (epinephrine and norepinephrine) Peptides/Proteins Pituitary (GH, ADH, Oxytocin, LH, FSH, TSH, Adrenocorticotropin) Pancreas (Insulin and glucagon) Parathyroid (Parathormone)
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Basic concepts of hormone biology Basic concepts of hormone biology Once stimulated to be released, rapidity of hormone secretion varies Epi/Norepi takes seconds-maximal concentration within 1 minute. Thyroid hormones take months-effect can last 6 weeks Secretion regulated by Negative Feedback Control: Endocrine gland secretes its hormone Target organ affected Target organ performs its function (as directed by hormone) Target feeds back and decreases production/secretion of hormone **Key point: The response of the TARGET organ controls the output from the endocrine gland
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Hormone Receptor 101 Hormone Receptor 101 Bind to receptors on surface/interior of the cell resulting in a signaling cascade Each successive stage in cascade amplifies signal therefore very little hormone is needed to exert a significant final effect Hormone Receptor: proteins on target tissue that bind to hormones and initiate signal transduction Receptor Locations: Membrane Receptors: Peptide/Protein and catecholamine hormones Cytoplasmic Receptors: Steroid Hormones Nuclear Receptors: Thyroid Hormones Number of receptors on target tissue changes Downregulation: Interaction with hormone causes destruction or decreases production of receptor
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What are signal transducers? What are signal transducers? Transducers: proteins that convert the information in hormonal signals into chemical signals understood by cellular machinery They change their shape & activity when they interact directly with protein-hormone complexes. Usually enzymes or nucleotide binding proteins They produce 2 nd messengers or change the activity of other proteins by covalently modifying them (adding or removing phosphate, lipid groups, acetate, or methyl groups), or they interact with other proteins that do these things.
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How do hormone levels/response vary? How do hormone levels/response vary?
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10:20 - Metabolic Response to Fasting:Starvation -...

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