10:25 - Obesity I - Energy Balance: Obesity 1 Reading:...

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Energy Balance: Obesity 1 Reading: Gropper 4 th ed, Ch 15, pp. 519–520, 536–537 Gropper 5 th ed, Ch 8, pp. 279–280, 290–292, 298–301 On Blackboard: “Regulation of Body Weight in Humans”; Jequier and Tappy “Genetic approaches to studying energy balance: Perception and Integration”: Barsh and Schwartz
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2 Objectives for today: Components of energy expenditure Regulation of food intake/energy balance The obesity epidemic
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3 Energy Balance Energy intake=energy output Intake from oxidation of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and alcohol Output is harder to quantify Absorption, metabolism, and storage of nutrients Breathe, respire, thermal regulation and exercise Too little=loose body mass Too much=gain body mass (adipocytes)
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4 Energy Balance Energy Balance Amount Type Pattern Physical Activity Routine Metabolism Thermoregulation Growth Storage Energy in Energy out Energy Balance: kcal in = kcal out
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5 Components of Energy Expenditure Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Thermic effect of food (TEF) Effect of physical activity or exercise Thermoregulation
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6 Basal Metabolic Rate Energy required to sustain basic processes Oxygen consumption of an awake, relaxed, supine person 12-14 hrs after eating and at a comfortable temperature Extrapolated to kcal/24 hrs = Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE) 50–70% daily total energy expenditure brain, liver, heart, kidney (5–6% body weight, 60% BMR) Correlates with lean body mass Decreases with age as muscle decreases and fat increases Muscle (30–40% body weight, 25% BMR) Fat (at least 20% body weight, only 5% BMR) Determined by: Age Gender Body surface area Thyroid hormone
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7 Thermic Effect of Food Metabolic response to the processing of food Ranges ~5%–30% over BMR Associated with digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, storage of energy from food Dietary protein has greatest effect (+20–30%) Carbohydrates are intermediate (5–10%) Fat minimal (0–5%) Mixed diet = 10% during 24-hour period Peaks at 1 hr after a meal; usually gone by 4 hr Not a component of energy requirement calculations
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8 Physical Activity Voluntary movement Most variable of components Average = 20–40% of total energy expenditure Factors affecting energy expenditure of exercise: Intensity, duration and frequency Body mass Efficiency Duration of elevated oxygen consumption following exercise
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9 Thermoregulation Also called adaptive, nonshivering, facultative, or regulatory thermogenesis Energy expenditure increases to maintain core body temperature in cold temperatures Sweating also requires energy Usually minor because humans adjust amount of clothing Also increased in trauma, burns
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10 Fig. 15-5, p. 536
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11 Long-term Energy Balance ~700,000 kcal intake per year Example: 15 kg (33 lbs.) weight gain, age 25–55
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course NTR 342 taught by Professor Tillman during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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10:25 - Obesity I - Energy Balance: Obesity 1 Reading:...

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