11:01 - Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Athletic Performance

11:01 - Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Athletic Performance

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Energy Balance: Physical Activity Reading: Gropper 4 th ed, Ch 8, pp. 243–252, 257–258 Gropper 5 th ed, Ch 7, pp. 265–274 Fairchild, et al., “Rapid carbohydrate loading after a short bout of near maximal-intensity exercise.” Med Sci Sports Ex 34:980-986 (2002)
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2 Objectives for today: Types of energy expenditure through physical activity Fuel sources during exercise Energy sources during exercise
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3 Energy Expenditure: Activity Thermogenesis Average: 20-40% of total energy use Can be much more or less Energy expended through: Exercise activity-related thermogenesis Daily activity Strenuous exercise/activity NEAT: Nonexercise activity thermogenesis Energy expended from spontaneous physical activity (fidgeting) Sometimes defined to include “daily activity” Varies greatly between individuals
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4 NEAT Important in long-term energy balance Individuals vary dramatically in amount of weight gained in response to overeating Inherent capacity for NEAT also varies greatly Like feeding behavior, NEAT is regulated by hypothalamic pathways Abnormalities in brain control of this function associated with consequences in activity and body composition
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5 Copyright ©2008 American Physiological Society Kotz, C. M. et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294: R699-R710 2008; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00095.2007 Fig. 2. Cumulative time spent moving over 24 h in obesity prone (OP) and obesity resistant (OR) rats with and without food
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6 Copyright ©2008 American Physiological Society Kotz, C. M. et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294: R699-R710 2008; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00095.2007 Fig. 1. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) regulatory brain areas and associated neuropeptides/transmitters
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7 Orexin (Hypocretin) NEAT generator Neuropeptide hormone Produced by small number of hypothalamic cells Projections throughout brain Inhibited by leptin, activated by ghrelin, hypoglycemia Stimulates appetite and energy metabolism Promotes wakefulness and movement Dysregulation involved in narcolepsy In rodents, long-term sleep deprivation greatly increases appetite and catabolism, leading to death Obesity-resistant rats more sensitive to activity-promoting effects Orexin neural circuit a target for obesity therapeutics??
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8 Definitions Cardiovascular fitness Ability of circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel Muscular strength Ability of muscle to exert force (how much/maximal) Muscular endurance Ability of muscle to continue without fatigue (how long) Body composition Ratio of fat to lean body mass Flexibility Range of motion around a joint Muscular fatigue: The decline in the ability of a muscle to create force A normal result of vigorous exercise, resulting from exhaustion of intracellular energy sources
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9 Definitions Maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) Point at which increased activity no longer results in
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course NTR 342 taught by Professor Tillman during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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11:01 - Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Athletic Performance

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