Review_for_Exam_1

Review_for_Exam_1 - Review for Exam 1- B vitamins Vitamin...

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Thiamin – Vitamin B1 Linked to Beriberi, endemic in East Asia Associated with polished rice. described as early as 2600 BC in China. Dr, Christian Eijkman – work with chickens demonstrated that it was a result of a dietary component. Review for Exam 1- B vitamins Vitamin Discovery: Dr. Robert Williams worked for 25 years to isolate the substance and in 1934 was able isolate 1/3 of an ounce of the crystalline substance. Procedure was very costly. But Williams was able to publish the correct structure. 2 years later Williams and colleagues were able to synthesize the vitamin.
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Riboflavin – B2 Discovery linked to Thiamin one of the substances uncovered in the search for the anti beriberi factor. isolated and structure identified in 1933 by Kuhn , Szent-Györgyi and Wagner-Jaunergy has a fluorescent orange-yellow color. name comes from: ribo – sugar alcohol ribitol in the structure and flavin – flavus – Latin for yellow
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Niacin- B3 Discovery – Pellagra: the 4 D’s – dermatitis , diarrhea , dementia & death related to disease Pellagra – in turn linked to corn Specifically linked to corn preparation in Europe in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Began to see in US, early 20th century, viewed as an infectious disease brought by immigrants. As ‘pellagrins’ progressed to dementia, they were housed in asylums. Also saw higher numbers in the south due to poor southern diet. Three 3 M’s: m eat – pork fat back m eal - corn meal m olasses
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Dr. Joseph Goldberger : early public health physician , sent by US government Niacin Discovery continued 1. Noted that staff that came in contact with inmates did not get sick. Thought diet was the problem. 2. Demonstrated diet was the issue with prisoners in Rankin Prison in Jackson, Mississippi. 4. Used Public Health Survey technique in southern mill villages and determined: •. Pellagra both more common and less serious than previously thought. •. More common in people that did not have milk and meat in their diet – poverty. •. Pellagra caused by corn displacing other healthy foods in the diet •. Pellagra was predominately a disease of children.
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Conrad Elvehjem in the 1930’s was able to extract nicotinic acid and demonstrate that it cured Pellagra. In 1941 the US gov’t. decided to fortify bread with nicotinic acid, changed the name to niacin. Pantothenic Acid Pantothenic Acid as isolated around 1931 by Dr. Robert Williams and the structure was identified in 1939. However, F. Lipmann showed coenzyme A facilitated biological acetylation reactions and won the Nobel prize
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Biotin Linked to high amounts of raw egg whites to a diet that caused ‘egg- white injury.’ Biotin’s structure determined by Kogl and Gyorgy . Folate (Folic Acid)
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course NTR 365 taught by Professor Sweltzer during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas.

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Review_for_Exam_1 - Review for Exam 1- B vitamins Vitamin...

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