09:20:2011 - Vitamin C

09:20:2011 - Vitamin C - Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid...

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Unformatted text preview: Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid Discovery – history of Scurvy • ancient disease. • Evidence found in bone remains from the Neolithic period and in hieroglyphs from Egypt • The word comes from Norse (Vikings). • especially common in seafarers on long journeys, made possible by better ship design – Age of Discovery. As early as late 1500’s- early 1600’s cure of eating fresh foods such as oranges, lemons and limes recommended – believed it was the acidity of these foods that caused the cure. Almost 90 percent of Magellan’s crew didn’t survive his circumnavigation of the globe (1519-1522), largely due to scurvy. Symptoms Bleeding gums and loss of teeth Weakness Swelling of arms and legs Diarrhea Muscle pain Foul breath Nose/mouth bleeding Lung and kidney problems Death 1734 – Dr. Johannes Bachstrom – first to suggest scurvy was a deficiency disease. He was ignored – it was the age of connecting illness to “humors” or body fluids. Chinese sailors grew ginger on their ships and included it in their everyday meals It wasn’t until 1747(!) that the effectiveness of citrus was proven 1617 – A sailor’s manual suggested water, vinegar and cinnamon (which didn’t help at all) Quebec Indians suggested an infusion of the needles of the spruce tree, which proved extremely effective 1601- Capt. James Lancaster issued 3 daily teaspoons of lemon juice to his sick sailors 1747- James Lind’s Experiment • All received sweetened gruel, mutton broth, boiled biscuits, barley, rice, raisins, currants, and wine • Lind was a Scottish doctor serving as surgeon’s mate aboard a British warship in the Mediterranean. • Lind chose sailors with similar scurvy symptoms, diets, and living environments Group #1: Quart of cider daily Group #2: vinegar Group #3: diluted elixir of vitriol (sulfuric acid) Group #4: Half a pint of seawater Group #5: nutmeg, garlic, mustard seed, gum myrrh, cream of tartar, barley water Group #6: Two oranges and a Lemon daily...
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course NTR 365 taught by Professor Sweltzer during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas.

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09:20:2011 - Vitamin C - Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid...

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