09:27:2011 - Antioxidants

09:27:2011 - Antioxidants - Antioxidants I Review of...

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Antioxidants I Review of generation of ROS and RNS II Actions of reactive species III Elimination of reactive species IV Oxidative Stress V Vascular changes seen in aging VI non-pharmacological treatments
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Table 1, p. 417
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Generation of ROS and RNS ROS formed from exposure to substances outside the body: smog, ozone, chemicals, drugs, radiation ROS are also produced through normal physiological processes: 1. Oxygen molecules react with catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. 2. Electron transport chain – leak electrons when electrons are passed to coenzyme Q. 3. At the endoplasmic reticulum – compounds are hydroxylated by cytochrome P 450 4. White Blood Cells – through the action of NADPH oxidases reacting to a foreign substance, when engulfed by the white blood cell.
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Action of Reactive Species Take electrons from cell constituents: 1) nucleic acids in DNA – induces changes in purines and pyrimidines which can lead to mutations and breakages 2) proteins and amino acids - causes breaks in the peptide bonds and can lead to cross-linking which changes the secondary and tertiary protein structures 3) PUFA (within membranes) – leads to degradation of the lipids in the membranes can cause hemolysis of RBC and oxidation of LDLs.
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Fig. 1, p. 418
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course NTR 365 taught by Professor Sweltzer during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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09:27:2011 - Antioxidants - Antioxidants I Review of...

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