10:11:2011 - Review for Exam #2

10:11:2011 - Review for Exam #2 - Review for Exam 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Review for Exam 2 Discovery and History Vitamin C: ancient disease especially common in seafarers on long journeys, made possible by better ship design Age of Discovery. Many treatments: ginger, spruce needles, cinnamon as well as lemons. Dr. Johannes Bachstrom (1743) suggested it was related to something missing in the diet, not taken seriously. 1747- James Linds Experiment All received sweetened gruel, mutton broth, boiled biscuits, barley, rice, raisins, currants, and wine Lind was a Scottish doctor serving as surgeons mate aboard a British warship in the Mediterranean. Lind chose sailors with similar scurvy symptoms, diets, and living environments Group #1: Quart of cider daily Group #2: vinegar Group #3: diluted elixir of vitriol (sulfuric acid) Group #4: Half a pint of seawater Group #5: nutmeg, garlic, mustard seed, gum myrrh, cream of tartar, barley water Group #6: Two oranges and a Lemon daily Group #6 was ready for duty in six days Only 40 YEARS later, the British navy began the compulsory issue of lemon juice to their sailors In late 1800s also saw infantile scurvy. Scurvy in young children was the result of Drinking pasteurized milk. Pasteurization killed many bacteria that could cause illness. But the heat rendered the vitamin C ineffective. Challenge in scientific investigation find an animal model. Axel Holst and Theodore Frolich discovered that they could replicate scurvy in guinea pigs. Most animals can synthesize their own ascorbic acid Enzyme humans lack. Szent-Gyrgyi found the crystal in 1927 and was successful in isolating it in the early 1930s. He won the Nobel Prize for his work in 1937. Haworth also won a Nobel Prize that year for the synthesis of Vitamin C. Vitamin A Discovery Elmer Verner McCollum The University of Wisconsin (1913) - one of the first to work with rats as an experimental model. Varied diets: diets with butter, egg yolks and cod-liver oil = healthy rats Diets with olive oil, lard or almond oil = rats with sore eyes, infections, such as pneumonia Found a substance in the butter, egg and cod-liver oil that was lacking , called it fat-soluble factor A . McCollum was recruited by Johns Hopkins in 1917. He was brought in to promote the study of nutrition. Not taken seriously by physicians. continued his experiments with rats and diet. also felt the pubic needed to be told about nutrition. nutrition editor for McCall's and wrote over 160 articles designed to guide the American housewife in feeding her family. promoted the idea that a variety of foods needed to be in the diet. 1930s: determined body could convert carotenoids into active vitamin A. 1976-1980 demonstrated the direct link between Vitamin A and general infection and the immune system was clarified. Vitamin E Discovery 1922 but took several years to determine a function....
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course NTR 365 taught by Professor Sweltzer during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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10:11:2011 - Review for Exam #2 - Review for Exam 2...

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